Harlem Renaissance Richmond Barthe Art Harmon Foundation African American

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Verkoper: collectiblecollectiblecollectible (553) 100%, Objectlocatie: Ann Arbor, Michigan, Verzending naar: US en vele andere landen, Objectnummer: 332891495528 A fantastic portfolio ca1940's for the art of Richmond Barthe, The original envelope measures 10 7/8 x 12 7/8 inches. The images which are collotype plates are on thin paper and have yellowing and measure 10x12 inches. I have never seen this portfolio in public hands. HARMON FOUNDATION INCORPORATED140 NASSAU STREETNEW YORK 7, NEW Y for the: SCULPTUREbyRichmond Barthé Barthe, Richmond (a.k.a. James Richmond). (Bay St. Louis, MS, 1901-Pasadena, CA, 1989) Bibliography and Exhibitions MONOGRAPHS AND SOLO EXHIBITIONS: Ames, Winslow. Contemporary American Artists: RICHMOND BARTHE. 1980. In: PARNASSUS 12, No. 3. (March 1980):10-17. Biloxi (MS). Ohr-O'Keefe Museum of Art. RICHMOND BARTHE: The Seeker. November 5, 2011-June 12, 2012. Solo exhibition. Curated by Margaret Rose Vendryes. Boston (MA). Margaret Brown Galleries. RICHMOND BARTHE. 1947. Solo exhibition. Chicago (IL). Ebony editors. Monuments to Two Greats. 1946. In: Ebony 1 (Sept. 1946): 35-39. On Richmond Barthé's Booker T. Washington sculpture; mentions Hale Woodruff, John Rhoden 4to, wraps. Chicago (IL). South Side Community Art Center. RICHMOND BARTHE. November 23-,1942. Solo exhibition. [Review: "Barthé," ARTnews 41 (December 1-14, 1942):35. Chicago (IL). Women's City Club. RICHMOND BARTHE. 1930. Solo exhibition. Glueck, Grace. RICHMOND BARTHE, Sculptor, Dies. 1989. Obituary. In: NYT, March 16, 1989. Grand Rapids (MI). Grand Rapids Art Gallery. RICHMOND BARTHE. 1930. Solo exhibition. Hammond, Bert D. A conversation: Richmond Barthé; Richmond Barthé and Elizabeth Catlett: An Exchange. 1984. In: The International Review of African American Art Vol. 6, no. 1 (1984): Sculpture Issue No. 1:3-25; 1 color illus., 15 b&w illus. (mostly photos of artists, but some illus. of work.) An interconnected pair of interviews with Richmond Barthé -- one by Hammond, written up as a biographical essay; and the transcript of a conversation between Elizabeth Catlett and Richmond Barthé. 4to, wraps. Lewis, Samella. BARTHE: His Life in Art. Los Angeles: Unity Works in collaboration with the Museum of African American Art, 2009. Published to accompany the traveling retrospective exhibition organized by Samella Lewis under the title Richmond Barthé, Harlem Renaissance Sculptor. Large sq. 4to, cloth, d.j. First ed. Los Angeles (CA). California African American Museum. RICHMOND BARTHE: Harlem Renaissance Sculptor. September 1-December 31, 2009. Solo exhibition of 30 bronze sculptures and 10 photomurals. Curated by Samella Lewis. [Traveled to: Dixon Gallery and Gardens, Memphis, TN, October 3, 2010-January 2, 2011; NCCU Art Museum, Durham, NC, February 4-April 17, 2011; Sheldon Memorial Art Galllery, Lincoln, NE, October 7, 2011-January 14, 2012; Mississippi Museum of Art, Jackson, MS, October 6-February 10, 2012; Los Angeles (CA). William Grant Still Arts Center. RICHMOND BARTHE. January 12-February 9, 1978. Solo exhibition. Invitation card. Madison (WI). University of Wisconsin-Madison. RICHMOND BARTHE. 1933. Solo exhibition. Madison (WI). University of Wisconsin-Madison. RICHMOND BARTHE. 1931. Solo exhibition. Montclair (NJ). Montclair Art Museum. RICHMOND BARTHE. 1949. Solo exhibition. New Orleans (LA). Amistad Research Center. RICHMOND BARTHE: Builder of Pictures. Thru July 8, 2011. Solo exhibition. Taken mostly from the Richmond Barthé Papers at the Amistad Research Center, the exhibition features letters, photographs, sketches, writings and 3 sculptures in terra cotta, bronze and painted plaster from 1937-38. An exhibition checklist is available at the Amistad Research Center website: http://amistadresearchcenter.org/index.php/exhibitions/258-richmond-barthe-builder-of-pictures-checklist New York (NY). Arden Gallery. Exhibition of Sculpture by RICHMOND BARTHE. March 8-April 1, 1939. Unpag. (12 pp.) exhib. cat., 6 b&w illus., checklist of 37 works, including 18 bronzes. Intro. by Carl Van Vechten. 8vo (9 x 6 in.), wraps. First ed. New York (NY). Caz-Delbo Gallery. RICHMOND BARTHE. 1931. Solo exhibition. New York (NY). Delphic Studios. RICHMOND BARTHE. 1935. Solo exhibition. New York (NY). DePorres Interracial Center. RICHMOND BARTHE. 1941. Solo exhibition. [Review: Barry Byrne, "Art," America 65 (July 26, 1941):445.] New York (NY). Grand Central Art Galleries. RICHMOND BARTHE. 1947. Solo exhibition. New York (NY). Harmon Foundation. Sculpture by RICHMOND BARTHE. N.d. (c.1942). 13 leaves (12 illustrations of sculpture; 1 photo of artist.) Portfolio of images. Not known if this publication was issued in relation to an exhibition. Folio (32 cm.). NEW YORK (NY). National Urban League. Opportunity, Journal of Negro Life 18 (July 1940). 1940. Cover illus.: Portrait of Richmond Barthé by Robert M. Jackson. New York (NY). Sayville Playhouse. RICHMOND BARTHE. 1945. Solo exhibition. New York (NY). Whitney Museum of American Art. RICHMOND BARTHE. 1934. Solo exhibition. After the show, the museum purchased three of Barthé's sculptures for its permanent collection. Port Royal (Jamaica). Institute of Jamaica. RICHMOND BARTHE. 1959. Solo exhibition. Reyher, Rebecca Hourwich. Zulu Woman: Christina, First Wife of Solomon, King of the Zulus, The Story of a Modern Woman's Rebellion Against Polygamy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1948. xiv, 281 pp., frontis. illus., map on endpapers. Preface by Ruth Benedict. Contains frontispiece drawing by Richmond Barthé. From the story of the Zulus by J. Y. Gibson. The story of the a South African woman, married at 15 who escapes her abusive circumstances to demand and receive a divorce from her husband, a king with approximately sixty-five wives. 8vo (21.3 cm.; 8.75 x 5.5 in.), cloth, d.j. San Francisco (CA). San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA). SARGENT JOHNSON: African American Modernist. March 13-July 7, 1998. 95 pp. exhib. cat., 39 color plates, numerous 16 b&w illus., checklist, chronol., exhibs., and bibliog. by Gwendolyn Shaw. Texts by Lizzetta Lefalle-Collins and Judith Wilson discuss the artist's stylistic development in historic and cultural contexts, including the work of Meta Warrick Fuller, Augusta Savage, Richmond Barthé, Elizabeth Prophet, and May Howard Jackson. Sargent Johnson (1888-1967) was a major West Coast sculptor whose early work explores important issues of racial identity. 4to (27 cm.), self-wraps. First ed. Unattributed. RICHMOND BARTHE: Painter, Sculptor, Universal Artist (1901-1989). 1999. In: The Crisis 106, no. 3 (May-June, 1999):36-37; 4 color illus. 4to, wraps. Vendryes, Margaret Rose. BARTHE: A Life in Sculpture. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2008. xv, 229 pp., 146 illus. (67 in color), bibliog., index. Foreword by Jeffrey Stewart. Important monograph. 4to (26 x 19 cm.), cloth, d.j. First ed. Vendryes, Margaret Rose. Brothers under the Skin: RICHMOND BARTHE in Haiti. 2004. In: Edwidge Danticat & LeGrace Benson, eds. Journal of Haitian Studies, Vol. 10, no. 2 (Fall 2004). Vendryes, Margaret Rose. Casting Feral Benga: A Biography of RICHMOND BARTHE’s Signature Work. 2002. Supported and published by 2002 Anyone Can Fly Foundation Professional Scholars Grant. http://artsnet.org/anyonecanfly/library/Vendryes_on_Barthe.html Vendryes, Margaret Rose. Expression and repression of identity: race, religion, and sexuality in the art of American sculptor RICHMOND BARTHE. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, 2001. 3 vols. Bibliog. Thesis (Ph. D.), Princeton University, 1997. 8vo, cloth. Vendryes, Margaret Rose. The Lives of RICHMOND BARTHE. Alyson Publications, 2000. In: The Greatest Taboo: Homosexuality in Black Communities (ed. Delroy Constantine-Simms; foreword by Henry Louis Gates, Alyson Books, 2001, 504 pp.), pp. 274-86. Vendryes, Margaret Rose. Vindicating Black Masculinity: BARTHE's James Weldon Johnson Memorial. 2002. In: The International Review of African American Art Vol. 18, no. 2 (2002). 4to, wraps. Vendryes, Margaret Rose. Young, Gifted, and Black Between the Wars: RICHMOND BARTHE's Manhattan Years. 2011. In: Sculpture Review Vol. LX, No. 1 (Spring 2011). GENERAL BOOKS AND GROUP EXHIBITIONS: ADAMS, RUSSELL L. and EUGENE WINSLOW (illus.). Great Negroes, Past & Present. Chicago: Afro-Am Publishing Co., (1963) 1969. For juvenile readers. ix, 212 pp. over 150 brief biographies, maps, bibliog., index, reproducing sketches by Eugene Winslow, of "outstanding Negro people and their African antecedents." Individual entries include: Robert Duncanson, Henry Tanner, Horace Pippin, Richmond Barthé, Marion Perkins, Edward Bannister, Edmonia Lewis, Malvin Gray Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Charles White, Charles Alston, Geraldine McCullough, Richard Hunt, E. Simms Campbell. Not collated against earlier editions. [First published in 1963 (182 pp.), the book went through numerous editions.] 4to (29 cm.), pictorial cloth, d.j. Third revised ed. ALBANY (NY). Albany Institute of History and Art. The Negro Artist Comes of Age: A National Survey of Contemporary American Artists. January 3-February 11, 1945. vii, 77 pp., 63 b&w illus., checklist of 76 works by 38 artists, with 14 others mentioned as well. A major early survey. Foreword by John Davis Hatch, Jr.; essay "Up Till Now" by Alain Locke who states that the show is both "a representative and challenging cross-section of contemporary American art and, additionally, convincing evidence of the Negro’s maturing racial and cultural self-expression in painting and sculpture." The exhibition coincided with the last months of WWII and the return of the troops. Artists mentioned or included: Charles Alston, William Artis, Henry (Mike) Bannarn, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Eloise Bishop, Selma Burke, William S. Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Claude Clark, Sr., Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Allan Rohan Crite, Joseph Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Robert S. Duncanson, Frederick Flemister, Meta Warrick Fuller, Rex Goreleigh, William A. Harper, Palmer Hayden, James Herring, May Howard Jackson, Joshua Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Ronald Joseph, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Edward L. Loper, Archibald J. Motley, Frank Neal, Marion Perkins, Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, William E. Scott, Charles Sebree, Thelma Streat, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Dox Thrash, Laura Wheeler Waring, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Ellis Wilson, John Wilson, Vernon Winslow, Hale Woodruff. [Traveled to: Brooklyn Museum of Art.] [Locke's essay is reprinted in: The Critical Temper of Alain Locke. A Selection of His Essays on Art and Culture. New York: Garland, 191-94.] [Reviews: Carter G. Woodson, The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 30, No. 2 (April 1945):227-228; "The Negro Artist Comes of Age," ARTnews (February 1-14, 1945) reprinted in ARTnews 91 (November 1992):109-10.] 8vo (9 x 6 in.; 23 cm.), wraps. First ed. ALFORD, STERLING G. Famous First Blacks. New York: Vantage, 1974. Minimal coverage of art, pp. 9-11. Artists mentioned include: Edward Bannister, Joshua Johnson, Scipio Moorhead, Georg Olden, Henry Tanner, Richmond Barthé, Selma Burke, Edmonia Lewis, Elizabeth Prophet, William Majors, Jacob Lawrence. ANDERSON, JERVIS. This Was Harlem: A Cultural Portrait, 1900-1950. New York: Ferrar, Straus, Giroux, 1982. x, 389 (1) pp., illus. (Vanderzee photos and Aaron Douglas Crisis cover). Mentions: Charles Alston, William Artis, Henry Bannarn, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Robert Blackburn, Selma Burke, Yolande Du Bois, E. Simms Campbell, Ernest Crichlow, Aaron Douglas, Elton Fax, Vertis Hayes, Gwendolyn Knight, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Augusta Savage, Hale Woodruff, James Vanderzee. 8vo (25 cm.; 9.2 x 6.2 in.), cloth, d.j. ANDREWS, BENNY. Art: Keeping Up with This Jones. 1977. In: Encore American & Worldwide News Vol. 6 (July 18, 1977):35. Mentions Lawrence Jones (Andrews's teacher), Elizabeth Catlett, Charles White, Archibald Motley, Richmond Barthé, Hale Woodruff, Aaron Douglas, Lois Mailou Jones. APEL, DORA. Imagery of Lynching: Black Men, White Women, and the Mob. London: 2004. 259 pp., b&w illus. Examination of the role that gender played in visual representations of lynching, how photographs were used to construct ideologies of race and interracial desire. 4to (10.3 x7.2 in.), cloth, d.j. First ed. APPIAH, KWAME ANTHONY and HENRY LOUIS GATES, Jr., eds. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. Oxford University Press, 1999; 2005. 5 Vols. 4500 pp., 1000 photographs, maps, illus. Expanded to 8 vols. No new information or in-depth discussion of the visual arts. Names of visual artists included in the accounts of each period of black history are often lumped into a one sentence list; very few have additional biographical entries. [As of 2011, far more substantial information on most of the artists is available from Wikipedia than is included in this Encyclopedia.] Includes mention of: James Presley Ball, Jean-Michel Basquiat, David A. Bailey, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Cornelius Battey, Romare Bearden, Dawoud Bey, Everald Brown, Elizabeth Catlett, Dana Chandler, Roland Charles, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Albert V. Chong, Robert H. Colescott, Allan R. Crite, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Murry Depillars, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, Robert S. Duncanson, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, the Goodridge Brothers, Rex Goreleigh, Tapfuma Gutsa, Palmer Hayden, Lyle Ashton Harris, Chester Higgins, Joshua Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Ben Jones, Seydou Keita, Lois Mailou Jones, William (Woody) Joseph, Wifredo Lam, Jacob Lawrence, Edmonia Lewis, Fern Logan, Stephen Marc, Lynn Marshall-Linnemeier, Willie Middlebrook, Scipio Moorhead, Archibald Motley, Gordon Parks, Horace Pippin, Prentiss H. Polk, James A. Porter, Elizabeth Prophet, Faith Ringgold, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, Chéri Samba, Augusta Savage, Jeffrey Scales, Addison L. Scurlock, Charles Sebree, Johannes Segogela, Twins Seven- even, Coreen Simpson, LornaSimpson, Moneta Sleet, Marvin & Morgan Smith, Renée Stout, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Hank Willis Thomas, Dox Thrash, James Vanderzee, Christian Walker, the Wall of Respect, Laura Wheeler Waring, Augustus Washington, Carrie Mae Weems, Charles White, Cynthia Wiggins, Carla Williams, Pat Ward Williams, et al. The entry on African Women Artists includes an odd and out-of-date collection of names: Elizabeth Olowu, Agnes Nyanhongo, Alice Sani, Inji Efflatoun, Grace Chigumira, Theresa Musoke, Palma Sinatoa, Elsa Jacob, and Terhas Iyasu. Hopefully future editions will follow the path of the substantially expanded edition of 2005 and will alter the overall impression that black visual artists are not worth the time and attention of the editors. [Note: Now out-of-print and available only through exorbitant subscription to the Oxford African American Studies Center (OAASC) a single database incorporating multiple Oxford encyclopedias, ongoing addiitions will apparently be unavailable to individuals or to most small libraries in the U.S. or worldwide.] 4to (29 cm.; 10.9 x 8.6 in.), cloth. Seond ed. ARCHER-STRAW, PETRINE. Desperately Seeking Africa Within Jamaican Art. 2003. In: Jamaica Journal (2003):20-23. Includes: Richmond Barthé, David Boxer, Everald Brown, Eric Cadien, Charles Campbell, Albert V. Chong, Christopher Clare, Leonard Daley, Ras Dizzy, Milton George, Christopher Gonzalez, Ras Daniel Heartman, Anna Henriques, Albert Huie, William (Woody) Joseph, Nettifnet Maat, Edna Manley, David Miller, Sr. and David Miller, Jr., Petrona Morrison, Gene Pearson, Khalfani Ra, Omari Ra, Osmond Watson, Stanford Watson, et al. ATLANTA (GA). Atlanta University. Atlanta University Contemporary Art Collection. 1959. 38 pp., 22 b&w illus., biogs. and illus. for: Charles Alston, Jacob Lawrence, William Palmer, and Hale Woodruff; list of 186 African American artists whose works were the prize winner purchases from the annual Atlanta University shows, 1942-1959, with titles of works. Prizewinners: 1942: William Carter, Frederick C. Flemister, Edward L. Loper, Charles Alston, Lois Mailou Jones; 1943: John Wilson, Hughie Lee-Smith, Mark Hewitt, Henry W. Bannarn, Frederick D. Jones; 1944: Cecil D. Nelson, Jr., John Farrar, John Wilson, Walter W. Smith, Frank W. Neal, Vernon Winslow, William E. Artis, Selma Burke, Mark Hewitt, James Dallas Parks, John Wilson; 1945: Henry W. Bannarn, John Wilson, Frederick Flemister, John N. Robinson (as John D.), Robert Willis, Margery W. Brown (as Marjorie), William E. Artis, Richmond Barthé, Mark Hewitt, Jenelsie Walden Holloway (as Jenelse Walden), Margaret G. Burroughs (as Margaret Goss); 1946: Joseph Delaney, Charles White, Ellis Wilson, Franklin M. Shands (painting), Leonard Cooper, Franklin M. Shands (watercolor), Richmond Barthé, Elizabeth Catlett, Charles White, Wilmer Jennings, Roy DeCarava; 1947: Frank H. Alston, Jr., Frank Neal, John Wilson, Joseph D. Atkinson, Calvin Burnett, Julia Ann Fields, William Artis, Samella Sanders (Lewis), H.E. Chandler, Hayward L. Oubré, Frank A. Wyley; 1948: Henry Bannarn, Rose Piper, Jacob Lawrence, Clarence Shivers, Calvin Burnett, William E. Pajaud, Richmond Barthé, Houston E. Chandler (sculpture), Bob Blackburn, Houston E. Chandler (prints), Hayward L. Oubré; 1949: Lois Mailou Jones, Cecil D. Nelson, Jr., Frederick D. Jones, Jr., Romeyn Van Vleck Lippman, Walter A. Simon, Charles W. Stallings, Jewel Simon, Charles White, Samella Sanders (Lewis), James H. Malone; 1950: John Howard, James Reuben Reed, Merton D. Simpson, William Hayden, Warren L. Harris, Estella W. Johnson, Eddie F. Jordan, John W. Rhoden, Samella Sanders (Lewis), Bob Blackburn, John T. Biggers; 1951: Merton D. Simpson, Walter A. Simon, Hale A. Woodruff, Richard W. Dempsey, Donald H. Roberts, Gladys W. Renwick, William E. Artis, Charles W. Stallings, Charles White, Charles W. Enoch Jr., John Wilson; 1952: Harvey W. Lee, Jr., Fred Jones, Ernest Crichlow, Samuel A. Countee, Lois Mailou Jones, Donald H. Roberts, Guy L. Miller, William E. Artis, John Wilson, Elizabeth Catlett, Patricia C. Walker; 1953: Walter H. Simon, Irvin H. Turner, Thomas E. Goodwin, Charles White, Romeyn Van Vleck Lippman, Jewel Woodward (as Woodard) Simon, John T. Biggers (sculpture), Hayward L. Oubré, Leroy C. Weaver, John T. Biggers (print), Robert A. Daniel; 1954: Jean Flowers, Romeyn Van Vleck Lipmann, Frederick D. Jones, Jr., Harper T. Phillips, John Wilson (watercolor), Henry Bannarn, Jack Jordan, Margaret S. Collins, John Wilson (print), Charles W. Stallings, Samella S. Lewis; 1955: William E. Rice, John Wilson, James Yeargans, Lois Mailou Jones, Margaret T. Burroughs, Archie Taylor, Henry W. Bannarn, Jewel Woodward (as Woodard) Simon, Howard E. Lewis, Jimmie Mosely, Robert A. Daniel; 1956: Merton D. Simpson, Frederick D. Jones, Jr., Irene V. Clark, Leonard H. Jones, Lewis H. Stephens, Gerald F. Hooper, Marion Perkins, Elizabeth Catlett, Samella Sanders Lewis, Calvin Burnett, Charles W. Stallings; 1957: Thomas Jefferson Flanagan, Benjamin Britt, Geraldine McCullough, Walter Wallace, Jewel Woodard Simon, John Wilson (watercolor), Hayward L. Oubré (sculpture), Jack Jordan, John Wilson (print), Hayward L. Oubré (print), Howard E. Lewis; 1958: Irene V. Clark, James Watkins, Cullen C. Lowe, Benjamin Britt, June Hector, William S. Carter, Guy L. Miller, Gregory Ridley, Barbara L. Gallon, Tommie E. Price, Zenobia Hammonds; 1959: David C. Driskell, Mildred A. Braxton, James Yeargans, James Watkins, Vivian Williams, Leedell Moorehead, William E. Artis, Alfred Stevenson, Hubert C. Taylor, John W. (as H.) Arterbery, Anna E. Costley. 8vo, blue paper covers, lettered in brown. First ed. ATLANTA (GA). Atlanta University. Fifth Annual Exhibition of Paintings, Sculptures and Prints by Negro Artists. 1946. Group exhibition. Purchase award winners included: Charles White (won 2 prizes), Franklin M. Shands (won both painting and watercolor categories), Richmond Barthé, Elizabeth Catlett, Leonard Cooper, Joseph Delaney, Wilmer Jennings, Ellis Wilson, Roy DeCarava. Others in the exhibition: Selma Burke, Margaret Taylor Burroughs, William L. Cooper, John Miller Howard, Donald Redvers Reid, Charles W. Stallings, Hale Woodruff. [Review: Ebony, 1 (July 1946):46-49; illus. of work by Richmond Barthé, Charles White, Donald Reid, Franklin Shands, Jenelsie Walden, Wilbert Warren, Elizabeth Catlett, John Howard.] ATLANTA (GA). Atlanta University. Fourth Annual Exhibition of Paintings, Sculptures and Prints by Negro Artists. 1945. Group exhibition. Prize winners included: Henry W. Bannarn, John Wilson (first prize winner), Frederick Flemister, John N. Robinson (as John D.), Robert Willis, Margery W. Brown (as Marjorie), William E. Artis, Richmond Barthé, Mark Hewitt, Jenelsie Walden Holloway (as Jenelse Walden), Margaret G. Burroughs (as Margaret Goss); others included: Robert Willis, Pauline Clay, Hughie Lee-Smith, Vernon Winslow, Ellis Wilson, et al. [Review: Time magazine, April 9, 1945; and NYT review.] ATLANTA (GA). Atlanta University. Seventh Annual Exhibition of Paintings, Sculptures, and Prints by Negro Artists. April, 1948. Group exhibition. Included: Jacob Lawrence (first place purchase award); other purchase awards to: Henry Bannarn, Rose Piper, Clarence Shivers, Calvin Burnett, William E. Pajaud, Richmond Barthé, Houston E. Chandler (sculpture), Bob Blackburn, Houston E. Chandler (prints), Hayward L. Oubré. ATLANTA (GA). High Museum of Art. Highlights from the Atlanta University Collection of Afro-American Art. October-November, 1973. Unpag. (37 pp. plus errata slip) exhib. cat., illus. Intro. by Thomas D. Jarrett; foreword by Gudmund Vigtel; text by Richard A. Long. Over 70 artists listed. Includes: James Adair, Jackie W. Adams, Charles Alston, Frank Herman Alston, Jr., Benny Andrews, John W. Arterbery, Joseph Atkinson, William E. Artis, Herman Kofi Bailey, Mike Bannarn, Ernie Barnes, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Bob Blackburn, Shirley Bolton, Eva Booker, Mildred A. Braxton, Arthur L. Britt, Margery Brown, Selma Burke, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Burroughs, William S. Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Houston E. Chandler, Irene V. Clark, Floyd Coleman, Robert Colescott, Margaret S. Collins, William Leonard Cooper, Anne A. Costley, Samuel A. Countee, Ernest Crichlow, Robert A. Daniel, Roy DeCarava, Joseph Delaney, Richard Dempsey, David Driskell, Charles Enoch, John Farrar, Julia A. Fields, Thomas J. Flanagan, Frederick Flemister, Jean Flowers, Otis Galbreath, Barbara L. Gallon, Sam Gilliam, Charles Haines, Zenobia Hammonds, Edwin A. Harleston, William A. Harper, Palmer C. Hayden, William M. Hayden, June Hector, Mark Hewitt, Leon Hicks, Jenelsie Holloway, John Miller Howard, Richard Hunt, Wilmer Jennings, Estella W. Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, William H. Johnson, Fred Jones, Leonard Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Samella Lewis, Norma Morgan, Marion Perkins, John Rhoden, Franklin M. Shands, Jewel Simon, Merton Simpson, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Charles White, Robert Willis, Ellis Wilson, Hale Woodruff, et al. [Traveled to: Baltimore Museum of Art, January 15-February 24, 1974; Jacksonville Art Museum, FL, March 15-April 15; Minnesota Museum of Art, St. Paul, June 1-July 15, 1974; Delta Fine Arts, Inc., Winston-Salem, NC; Museum of the National Center of Afro-American Artists, Boston; Studio Museum in Harlem; DuSable Museum of African American History, Chicago.] 4to (28 cm.), wraps. First ed. ATLANTA (GA). National Black Arts Festival. Selected Essays: Art & Artists from the Harlem Renaissance to the 1980's. July 30-August 7, 1988. Ed. Crystal A. Britton. Exhibs., biogs., bibliog. Foreword by A. Michelle Smith. Texts by Richard Long, M. Akua McDaniel, Tina M. Dunkley, Judith Wilson, Dr. Leslie King-Hammond, Gylbert Coker, Lisa Tuttle, Richard Hunt, Beverly Buchanan, Lucinda H. Gedeon, Amalia Amaki, Published to accompany the inaugural exhibition of the National Black Arts Festival. 145 featured artists include: Charles Alston, Emma Amos, William Anderson, Benny Andrews, Anna Arnold, John W. Arterbery, William Artis, Ellsworth Ausby, Herman Kofi Bailey, Henry Bannarn, Ellen Banks, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Garry Bibbs, John Biggers, Camille Billops, Robert Blackburn, Shirley Bolton, Michael D. Brathwaite, William A. Bridges, Jr., Vivian A. Browne, Beverly Buchanan, Calvin Burnett, David Butler, Carole Byard, Felix Casas, David Mora Catlett, Elizabeth Catlett, Colin Chase, Ed Clark, Kevin Cole, Larry W. Collins, Noel Copeland, Lonnie Crawford, Robert S. Duncanson, Damballah (Dolphus Smith), Alonzo Davis, Roy DeCarava, Joseph Delaney, Chuck Douglas, Sam Doyle, David C. Driskell, James E. Dupree, Melvin Edwards, Michael Ellison, Jonathan Eubanks, James Few, Thomas Jefferson Flanagan, Frederick C. Flemister, Roland L. Freeman, John W. Gaines, IV, Herbert Gentry, Eddie M. Granderson, Kevin Hamilton, Michael Harris, William Harris, Palmer Hayden, William M. Hayden, Charnelle D. Holloway, Jenelsie W. Holloway, Manuel Hughes, Margo Humphrey, Malvin G. Johnson, William H. Johnson, Frederick Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Seitu Ken Jones, Jack Jordan, Robert W. Kelly, Gary Jackson Kirksey, Frank D. Knox, Jacob Lawrence, Spencer Lawrence, Thomas Laidman, Ron Lee, Roosevelt Lenard, Leon Leonard, Samella Lewis, Henri Linton, Romeyn Van Vleck Lippman, Juan Logan, Ulysses Marshall, Richard Mayhew, Geraldine McCullough, Juanita Miller, Gary Lewis Moore, George W. Mosely, J.B. Murry, Frank W. Neal, Otis Neals, Cecil D. Nelson, Jr., James Newton, Ronnie A. Nichols, Hayward Oubré, John Payne, Maurice Pennington, K. Joy Ballard-Peters, Howardena Pindell, John Pinderhughes, Gary Porter, Hugh Lawrence Potter, Richard J. Powell, Leslie K. Price, Mavis Pusey, Patricia Ravarra, James Reuben Reed, Calvin Reid, Patricia Richardson, Gregory D. Ridley, Jr., Faith Ringgold, Malkia Roberts, Christopher Wade Robinson, John D. Robertson, Sandra Rowe, Mahler B. Ryder, Martysses Rushin, JoeSam, Jewel W. Simon, Karl Sinclair, William G. Slack, Dolores S. Smith, Hughie Lee-Smith, Mary T. Smith, Mei Tei-Sing Smith, Henry Spiller, Freddie L. Styles, Henry O. Tanner, James 'Son' Thomas, Phyllis Thompson, Chris Walker, King Walker, Larry Walker, Delores West, Charles White, Charlotte Riley-Webb, Emmett Wigglesworth, Carleton F. Wilkinson, Michael Kelly Williams, William T. Williams, Ellis Wilson, Stanley C. Wilson, John Wilson, Hale Woodruff, Richard Yarde. Oblong 4to, wraps. First ed. AUZENNE, VALLIERE RICHARD, ed. The Catalogue of the Barnett-Aden Collection. Tampa: The Museum of African American Art, 1995. 144 pp., 80 illus. Including approx. 60 full-page color plates, 13 b&w illus., notes, bibliog., inventory list of 120 works by 44 African American artists and numerous white artists, plus a small collection of African art. Full text about each artist. Pref. by Israel Tribble, commentary by Adolphus Ealing, texts by Carroll Greene. Important record of a significant collection of major works. Igoe notes that of the 79 images reproduced in this catalog, only 57 images are found among the 120 works pictured in the 1974 Anacostia Museum catalogue of the collection. 4to, gilt lettered black cloth, pictorial d.j. First ed. BALTIMORE (MD). Baltimore Museum of Art. Contemporary Negro Art [a.k.a. Salon of Contemporary Negro Art]. February 3-19, 1939. Unpag. (24 pp.) exhib. cat., 6 b&w illus., checklist of 116 works by 24+ artists. Important 5-page foreword by Alain Locke. Included: Henry (Mike) Bannarn, Richmond Barthé, Samuel J. Brown, Jr., Robert Tyler Crump, Aaron Douglas, Elton Fax, John Solace Glenn (as Sollace J. Glenn), Rex Goreleigh, Palmer Hayden, William M. Hayden, Louise E. Jefferson, Wilmer Jennings, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence (allocated a special room for his Toussaint L'Ouverture series), Norman Lewis, Richard Lindsey, Ronald C. Moody, Archibald C. Motley, Robert L. Neal, Frederick Perry, Florence V. Purviance, Albert Alexander Smith, James Lesesne Wells, and Hale Woodruff. [Presumably the same show exhibited at the Augusta Savage Studio, June 8-22, 1939.] [Locke's essay is reprinted in The Critical Temper of Alain Locke. A Selection of His Essays on Art and Culture, edited by Jeffrey C. Stuart. New York: Garland, 191-84. Reviews: "Baltimore - Art by Negroes," Art News 37 (February 11, 1939; "An Exhibition of Negro Art," Baltimore Museum Quarterly 3 (1938-39):10-14.] 8vo (24 cm.; 9.3 x 6 in.), orange paper covers. First ed. BARDOLPH, RICHARD. The Negro Vanguard. New York: Rinehart, 1959. viii, 495, xvi pp., bibliog., index. Mentions very briefly approximately 40 African American visual artists (419-425). 8vo (24 cm.), cloth, d.j. BARNWELL, ANDREA D. The Walter O. Evans Collection of African American Art. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000. 163 pp., 90 excellent color plates, b&w text illus., notes, exhib. checklist, artists' biogs. Critical essays by Tritobia Hayes Benjamin, Walter O. Evans, Kirsten P. Buick, Amy M. Mooney, Andrea D. Barnwell. A substantial traditional collection of paintings, sculpture, prints, mixed-media work, and drawings: including: Charles Alston, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Bob Blackburn, Margaret Burroughs, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Beauford Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Robert S. Duncanson, Edwin A. Harleston, William A. Harper, Richard Hunt, Clementine Hunter, Sargent Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Archibald Motley, Jr., Marion Perkins, Horace Pippin, James Porter, Nelson A. Primus, Charles Sebree, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Robert Thompson, Dox Thrash, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White. 4to, cloth, d.j. First ed. BATTLE CREEK (MI). Battle Creek Art Center. American Black Art: Black Belt to Hill Country: the Known and the New. January 9-February 13, 1977. Unpag. (20 pp) exhib. cat., 15 b&w illus., checklist of 63 items. Text by J. Kline Hobbs. Includes: Benny Andrews, Steve Ashby, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Bruce Brice, Bernie Casey, Nathaniel Choate, Paul Collins, John E. Dowell, Robert S. Duncanson, Reginald Gammon, Sam Gilliam, Russell T. Gordon, Ray Hamilton, David Hammons, Rufus Hinton, Jenelsie Holloway, Richard Hunt, Clementine Hunter, Lester L. Johnson, Sargent Johnson, W. H. Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Al Loving, Charles McGee, Allie McGhee, Richard Mayhew, Robert Merriweather, Keith Morrison, Archibald Motley, Jr., Robert Murray, Inez Nathaniel, Leslie Payne, Elijah Pierce, Robert Reid (as Reed), Mahler Ryder, Betye Saar, William Edouard Scott, Charles Sebree, Henry O. Tanner, Wilson E. Thompson, Charles White, Walter J. Williams, Hale Woodruff, Joseph Yoakum. Small oblong 8vo, stapled black paper covers lettered in white. First ed. BEARDEN, ROMARE and HARRY HENDERSON. A History of African-American Artists from 1792 to the Present. New York: Pantheon Books, 1993. xvii, 341 pp., 420 b&w, 61 color plates, extensive bibliog.; section on Alain Leroy Locke, Charles Christopher Seifert, Mary Beattie Brady. Artists include: Moses Williams, Joshua Johnston, Robert S. Duncanson, Edward M. Bannister, Grafton T. Brown, Edmonia Lewis, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Aaron Douglas, Richmond Barthé, Archibald J. Motley Jr., Palmer C. Hayden, Augusta Savage, Malvin Gray Johnson, William H. Johnson, Hale A. Woodruff, Sargent Johnson, Charles H. Alston, Edzier Cortor, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Alvin C. Hollingsworth, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Hughie Lee-Smith, Ellis Wilson, William Edmondson, Elijah Pierce, Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, Lois Mailou Jones, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Elizabeth Catlett, John T. Biggers, Carrol H. Simms, Alma W. Thomas, Ed Wilson, James W. Washington, Jr., Richard Mayhew. Large 4to (31 cm.), cloth, dust jacket. First ed. BELLEVUE (WA). Bellevue Art Museum. Hidden Heritage: Afro-American Art, 1800-1950. 1985. 104 pp., 59 illus. (18 color plates including cover plates), checklist of 84 works by 42 artists, notes, bibliography. Driskell's essay is an excellent general survey including numerous artists not in the exhibition. Artists in exhibition in chronological order include: Joshua Johnson, William Simpson, David Bowser, Robert Duncanson, Edward Bannister, Grafton T. Brown, Edmonia Lewis, Henry Ossawa Tanner, William A. Harper, William E. Scott. Sargent Johnson, Horace Pippin, Elizabeth Prophet, Archibald Motley, Augusta Savage, Palmer Hayden, Malvin G. Johnson, Aaron Douglas, Meta Warrick Fuller, Ellis Wilson, Hale Woodruff, Richmond Barthé, Selma Burke, Beauford Delaney, William H. Johnson, James L. Wells, Joseph Delaney, Lois Mailou Jones, James Porter, Charles Alston, Marion Perkins, Norman Lewis, Romare Bearden, Ernest Crichlow, Charles Sebree, Hughie-Lee Smith, Claude Clark, Eldzier Cortor, Jacob Lawrence, Charles White, Elizabeth Catlett, James Lewis. [Traveling exhibition.] 4to, wraps. First ed. BERMAN, AVIS. Rebels on Eighth Street. New York: Atheneum, 1990. Mention of Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Beauford Delaney, Palmer Hayden, Jacob Lawrence, Archibald Motley, Horace Pippin. Black Shades. Black Shades 1 (October 1970). 1970. Includes: Richmond Barthé, Sherman Beck, Jeff Donaldson, Adolphus Ealey, James Herring, Jae Jarrell, Wadsworth Jarrell, Napoleon Jones-Henderson, Omar Lama, Carolyn Mims Lawrence, Augusta Savage, Nelson Stevens, et al. BLOCKSON, CHARLES, ed. Catalogue of the Charles L. Blockson Afro-American Collection, a Unit of the Temple University Libraries. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990. 820 pp., a dozen photographs, excellent title, name and detailed subject indices, approximately 11,000 entries describing a variety of historical artifacts: printed books, pamphlets, addresses and speeches, art catalogues, newspapers, periodicals, manuscripts, broadsides, handbills, lithographs, tape recordings, stamps, coins, maps, oil paintings, and sculpture that all relate to African, African American, and Caribbean life and history. Intro by Dorothy Porter Wesley. The strength of the collection is such that even though the focus was not on art, there are nonetheless at least 250 art and architecture-related holdings. Bibliography entries specifically on the Fine Arts (including African art): items 640-806 (pp. 35-43); photography pp. 392-3. Artists mentioned (generally as authors rather than artists) include: Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Jacqueline Fonvielle Bontemps, Clarence C. Bullock, E. Simms Campbell, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Leroy P. Clarke, William A. Cooper, Allan Rohan Crite, Beauford Delaney, David Driskell, Robert Duncanson, Elton Fax, Tom Feelings, Oliver (Ollie) Harrington, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Ida Ella Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Jesse Aaron, John L. Moore, Archibald Motley, Henry O. Tanner, Carroll Simms, Samella Lewis, Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, Martin Puryear, Faith Ringgold, Thomas Sills, Augusta Savage, Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, Richard Samuel Roberts, James Vanderzee, Ruth Waddy, Deborah Willis (Ryan), Charles White. BONTEMPS, ARNA ALEXANDER, ed. Choosing: An Exhibit of Changing Perspectives in Modern Art and Art Criticism by Black Americans, 1925-1985. Hampton (VA): Hampton University, 1985. 142 pp. exhib. cat., color and b&w illus., biogs., photo and illus. for each artist. Curated by Leslee Stradford. Essays by David Driskell, Keith Morrison (on printmaking), Allan Gordon, and Arna Bontemps include many artists not in the show. Artists exhibited include: Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Camille Billops, Robert Blackburn, Moe Brooker, Vivian E. Browne, Elizabeth Catlett, Catti, Claude Clark, Houston Conwill, Emilio Cruz, Mary Reed Daniel, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, John Dowell, David Driskell, Ed Dwight, Allan Edmunds, Sam Gilliam, Ed Hamilton, Michael Harris, Maren Hassinger, Barkley Hendricks, Robin Holder, Margo Humphrey, Richard Hunt, Martha Jackson-Jarvis, Persis Jennings, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Juan Logan, Ed Love, Geraldine McCullough, Lloyd McNeill, Percy Martin, Keith Morrison, Nefertiti, Mary Lovelace O'Neal, Joe Overstreet, Gregory Page, Howardena Pindell, Martin Puryear, John Rhoden, Raymond Saunders, Joyce Scott, Clemon Smith, Frank Smith, Vincent Smith, Sylvia Snowden, Nelson Stevens, Lou Stovall, Lloyd McNeill, Robert Stull, Alma Thomas, Eugene Roy Vango, Jack Whitten, William T. Williams, Hale Woodruff, Richard Yarde, James L. Wells, Charles White. [Traveled to Portsmouth Museum, Portsmouth, VA; Chicago State University, Chicago, IL; Howard University, Washington, DC.] 4to, cloth, d.j. First ed. BOSTON (MA). Boston University Art Gallery. Syncopated Rhythms: 20th-Century African American Art from the George and Joyce Wein Collection. November 18, 2005-January 22, 2006. 100 pp. exhib. cat., 64 color illus. Curated with text by Patricia Hills and catalogue entries by Hills and Melissa Renn; foreword by Ed Bradley. Includes 60 works (paintings, sculpture, drawings and a painted story quilt.) Exhibition of a range of works done in the late 1920s through the 1990s and is particularly strong in works of the 1940s-'70s. Artists include: Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Ernie Barnes, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Bruce Brice, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Allan Rohan Crite, Miles Davis, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Minnie Evans, Palmer Hayden, Oliver Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Wifredo Lam, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Sister Gertrude Morgan, Faith Ringgold, Betye Saar, Augusta Savage, Bob Thompson, Charles White, Michael Kelly Williams, William T. Williams, Ellis Wilson, John Wilson, Hale Woodruff and Richard Yarde. 4to (28 x 22 cm.), wraps. BRAWLEY, BENJAMIN G. The Negro Genius: A New Appraisal of the Achievement of the American Negro in Literature and the Fine Arts. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1937. xiii, 366 pp., frontispiece illus., plates, portraits, bibliog. Chapters 7 and 12 are particularly noteworthy: Chap. 7: Music and Art, 178-189; Chap. 12: The New Temper in Painting and Sculpture, 317-330. Includes 40 painters, sculptors, and printmakers. [Reprinted in 1966 by Biblo and Tannen.] 8vo (21 cm.), cloth, dust jacket. First ed. BRIGHAM, DAVID R. The Pyramid Club and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. 2010. In: Antiques and Fine Art. See: http://antiquesandfineart.com/articles/article.cfm?request=912. Lengthy article, color illus. Includes mention of numerous Pyramid Club exhibitions and artists with considerable focus on Humbert Howard, the artist-curator of the Pyramid Club exhibitions. Others mentioned include: Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Paul Keene, Jacob Lawrence, Horace Pippin, Louis B. Sloan, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Hale Woodruff. [Discussion as well of some of the many white artists who were also exhibited in the Pyramid Club shows.] BRITTON, CRYSTAL A. African-American Art: The Long Struggle. New York: Smithmark, 1996. 128 pp., 107 color plates (mostly full-page and double-page), notes, index. Artists include: Terry Adkins, Charles Alston, Amalia Amaki, Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, William E. Artis, Radcliffe Bailey, Xenobia Bailey, James P. Ball, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Romare Bearden, Edward Mitchell Bannister, John T. Biggers, Camille Billops, Willie Birch, Bob Blackburn, Betty Blayton, David Bustill Bowser, Grafton Tyler Brown, James Andrew Brown, Kay Brown, Vivian Browne, Beverly Buchanan, Selma Burke, Margaret Burroughs, Carole Byard, Elizabeth Catlett, Dana Chandler, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Ed Clark, Robert Colescott, Houston Conwill, Eldzier Cortor, Renée Cox, Ernest Crichlow, Allan Rohan Crite, Giza Daniels-Endesha, Dave [the Potter], Thomas Day, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, Leonardo Drew, Robert S. Duncanson, William Edmondson, Melvin Edwards, Minnie Evans, William Farrow, Gilbert Fletcher, James Forman, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, Michele Godwin, David Hammons, Edwin Harleston, William A. Harper, Palmer Hayden, Thomas Heath, white artist Jon Hendricks (no illus.), Robin Holder, May Howard Jackson, Wadsworth Jarrell, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Napoleon Jones-Henderson, Barbara Jones-Hogu, Lois Mailou Jones, Cliff Joseph, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie-Lee Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Juan Logan, Valerie Maynard, Dindga McCannon, Sam Middleton, Scipio Moorhead, Keith Morrison, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Sana Musasama, Marilyn Nance, Gordon Parks, Marion Perkins, Howardena Pindell, Adrian Piper, Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, Harriet Powers, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Martin Puryear, Patrick Reason, Gary Rickson, Faith Ringgold, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, Augusta Savage, Joyce J. Scott, William E. Scott, Charles Sebree, Lorna Simpson, William H. Simpson, Clarissa Sligh, Frank Smith, Vincent D. Smith, Nelson Stevens, Renée Stout, Freddie L. Styles, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Jean Toche (no illus.), Lloyd Toone, Bill Traylor, James Vanderzee, Annie E. Walker, William Walker, Laura Wheeler Waring, Carrie Mae Weems, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Grace Williams, Michael Kelly Williams, Pat Ward Williams, William T. Williams, Ellis Wilson, Fred Wilson, Hale Woodruff, et al. 4to (32 cm.), pictorial boards, d.j. First ed. BROOKLYN (NY) Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corp../ Metropolitan Museum of Art. Selected Works by Black Artists from the Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. April 14-June 14, 1976. 32 pp., 6 illus., checklist of 27 works by 19 artists, biogs. for each, bibliog. Brief text by Lowery S. Sims mentions Joshua Johnston, Robert Duncanson, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Charles Alston, Peter Bradley, Horace Pippin, Thomas Sills, Richmond Barthé, Jacob Lawrence, Samuel Brown. Exhibited artists include: Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Peter Bradley, Samuel Brown, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Avel DeKnight, Frederick Floyd, Herb Gentry, Palmer Hayden, Richard Hunt, Jacob Lawrence, William Majors, Preston Phillips, Thomas Sills, Jack Whitten, Hale Woodruff. Small square 4to (8.7 x 7.2 in.), wraps. BROOKLYN (NY). New Muse Community Museum of Brooklyn. Black Artists in the WPA, 1933-1943: An Exhibition of Drawings, Paintings and Sculpture. February 15-March 30, 1976. 24 pp. exhib. cat., illus. Curated by Charlene Claye VanDerzee; asst. curator; George Carter, assistant. Texts by VanDerzee and Ed Spriggs. Short biographies for Richmond Barthé, Jacob Lawrence, Charles White, Charles Sebree, Charles Alston, Ernest Crichlow, Norman Lewis, Palmer Hayden, Joseph Delaney, Selma Burke, Lois Mailou Jones, Wilmer A. Jennings, Malvin Gray Johnson, Earl Richardson, Hale Woodruff. [Others mentioned in foreword: Benny Andrews and Nii Ahene La Mettle-Nunoo] 8vo (21 cm.), stapled wraps. Bucher, George V.D. (Dir.). A Study of Negro Artists (Film). 1934. Documentary. Included: Richmond Barthé, James Latimer Allen, Palmer Hayden, Aaron Douglas, and Augusa Savage. The film project was funded by the Harmon Foundation and screened at the New York Public Library to raise funds to save the Harlem Art Workshop. Silent, b&w. 15 min. (4 reels). CALO, MARY ANN. Distinction and Denial: Race, Nation and the Critical Construction of the African American Artist, 1920-1940. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2007. xiv, 264 pp., substantial scholarly notes, bibliog., index. Chapters on Alain Locke and the Invention of "Negro Art," Institutional Contexts: Negro Art Initiatives in the Interwar Decades, Framing the African American Artist, Advances (and Retreats) on the Art Front. Discussion of Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, Cloyd Boykin, Aaron Douglas, John T. Hailstalk, John Hardrick, Palmer Hayden, James Herring, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Ronald Joseph, Archibald Motley, James A. Porter, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Augusta Savage, William Edouard Scott, Albert A. Smith, Henry Ossawa Tanner, James L. Wells, Hale Woodruff. Briefest mention of another 31 artists. Important research on the Boykin School of Art and Harlem Art Workshop of 1933 and the establishment of the Harlem Community Art Center. 8vo (23 x 16 cm.), cloth, d.j. First ed. CAMPBELL, MARY SCHMIDT. Harlem Renaissance: Art of Black America. New York: The Studio Museum and Abrams, N.Y., 1994. 200 pp., 140 illus., 55 in color, 29 artists mentioned along with an overall focus on music, dance, literature, and general culture, chronols., bibliog., good reference bibliography, books and magazines illustrated by Aaron Douglas, index. Texts by David Levering Lewis, David C. Driskell, Deborah Willis Ryan, J. Stewart. Artists included: Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Selma Burke, Allan Rohan Crite, Roy DeCarava, Aaron Douglas, David Driskell, Meta Vaux Fuller, Palmer Hayden, Charles S. Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Edmonia Lewis, Archibald Motley, Richard B. Nugent, James A. Porter, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Augusta Savage, Charles Sebree, Marvin and Morgan Smith, Henry O. Tanner, James Vanderzee, Laura W. Waring, Charles White, Hale Woodruff. Many others mentioned very briefly in passing. [Review: Kay Larsen, "Born Again," New York Magazine, March 16, 1987:74-75, color illus.] 4to (30 cm.; 11.5 x 8.6 in.), cloth, d.j. First ed. CATTELL, JACQUES, ed. Who's Who in American Art 16. New York: Bowker, 1984. Curators who are not also artists are included in this bibliographic entry but are not otherwise listed in the database: We are NOT going to go through all of these volumes over the decades; this one is catalogued simply to record the degree to which living African American artists had entered the conciousness of the mainstream American art world as of 1984. [Should be consulted along with Falk's Who Was Who in American Art (1985) to complete the "awareness list" as of the mid-1980s.] 160 artists are included here along with 1000 pages of far more obscure white artists: p. 21, Benny Andrews, 33, Ellsworth Ausby, 50, Richmond Barthé; 57, Romare Bearden, 76, John Biggers, 83, Betty Blayton, 98, Frank Bowling, 108, Arthur Britt, 112, Wendell Brooks, 116, Marvin Brown, 117-18, Vivian Browne, 121, Linda Goode Bryant, 128, Calvin Burnett, 129, Margaret Burroughs, 132, Carole Byard, 133, Walter Cade, 148, Yvonne Pickering Carter, 168, Claude Clark, 178-79, Floyd Coleman, 179, Robert Colescott, 181, Paul Collins, 184, James Conlon, 188-89, Arthur Coppedge; 191, Eldzier Cortor, Averille Costley-Jacobs, 198, Allan Crite; 210, D'Ashnash-Tosi [Barbara Chase-Riboud], 213-14, Alonzo Davis, 219-20, Roy DeCarava, 222, Avel DeKnight, 226, Richard Dempsey, 228, Murry DePillars, 237, Raymond Dobard, 239, Jeff Donaldson, 243, John Dowell, 246, David Driskell, 256, Allan Edmunds, 256-57, James Edwards, 260, David Elder, 265, Whitney John Engeran, 267, Marion Epting, 270, Burford Evans, 271, Minnie Evans, 271-72, Frederick Eversley, 277, Elton Fax, 304, Charlotte Franklin, 315, Edmund Barry Gaither (curator), 317, Reginald Gammon, 325, Herbert Gentry, 326, Joseph Geran, 328, Henri Ghent (curator), 332, Sam Gilliam, 346, Russell Gordon, 354, Rex Goreleigh, 361, Eugene Grigsby, 375, Robert Hall, 380, Leslie King-Hammond (curator), 381, Grace Hampton, 385, Marvin Harden, 406, Barkley Hendricks, 418, Leon Hicks, 414, Freida High-Wasikhongo, 424-25, Al Hollingsworth, 428, Earl Hooks, 433, Humbert Howard, 439, Richard Hunt, 450, A. B. Jackson, Oliver Jackson; 451, Suzanne Jackson, 454, Catti James, Frederick James, 464, Lester L. Johnson; 467, Ben Jones, 467-68, Calvin Jones, 469, James Edward Jones, Lois Jones, 471, Theodore Jones, 489, Paul Keene; 492, James Kennedy, 495-96, Virginia Kiah, 535, Raymond Lark, 540-41, Jacob Lawrence, 546, Hughie Lee-Smith, 557, Samella Lewis, 586, Cheryl Ilene McClenney (arts admin.), 595, Anderson Macklin, 620, Philip Lindsay Mason, 625, Richard Mayhew, 597, Oscar McNary, 598, Kynaston McShine (curator), 610, 637, Marianne Miles a.k.a. Marianne; 638, Earl Miller, 640-41, Lev Mills, 649, Evangeline Montgomery; 653, Norma Morgan, 655, Keith Morrison, 657, Dewey Mosby (curator), 671, Otto Neals, 693, Ademola Olugebefola, 700, Hayward Oubré, John Outterbridge, Wallace Owens, 702, William Pajaud, 706, James Parks, 710, Curtis Patterson, 711, Sharon Patton (curator), 711-12, John Payne, 720, Regenia Perry (curator), 724, Bertrand Phillips; 727, Delilah Pierce, 728, Vergniaud Pierre-Noël, 729, Stanley Pinckney, Howardena Pindell, 744, Leslie Price, Arnold Prince, 747, Mavis Pusey, 752, Bob Ragland, 759, Roscoe Reddix, 763, Robert Reid, 768, John Rhoden, 772, John Riddle, Gregory Ridley, 774, Faith Ringgold, 778, Lucille Roberts, 803, Mahler Ryder, 804, Betye Saar, 815, Raymond Saunders, 834, John Scott, 841, James Sepyo, 857, Thomas Sills, 859, Jewel Simon, 861, Merton Simpson, Lowery Sims (curator); 865, Van Slater, 869, Dolph Smith, 873, Vincent Smith, 886, Francis Sprout, 890-91, Shirley Stark, 898, Nelson Stevens, 920, Luther Stovall, 909, Robert Stull, 920, Ann Tanksley, James Tanner, 924, Rod Taylor, 922, William Bradley Taylor [Bill Taylor], 929, Elaine Thomas, 946, Curtis Tucker, 949, Leo Twiggs, 970, Larry Walker, 977, James Washington, 979, Howard Watson, 994, Amos White, 995, Franklin White, 996 Tim Whiten, 1001-2, Chester Williams, 1003, Randolph Williams, Todd Williams, Walter Williams, William T. Williams, 1005, Edward Wilson, George Wilson, 1005-6, John Wilson, 1007, Frank Wimberley, 1016, Rip Woods, 1017, Shirley Woodson, 1019, Bernard Wright, 1025, Charles Young, 1026, Kenneth Young, Milton Young. CHADWICK, WHITNEY and TIRZA TRUE LATIMER, eds. The Modern Woman Revisited: Paris Between the Wars. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2003. 259 pp., bibliog., index. Includes: "Gender, Race and Miscegenation," by Tyler Stovall; "Modern Dancers and African Amazons: Augusta Savage's Sculptures of Women, 1929-1930," by Theresa Leininger-Miller; discussion of numerous black expatriates in Paris. Includes (some with only brief mention): William Artist, Josephine Baker, Richmond Barthé, Ernest Crichlow, Palmer Hayden, Lois Mailou Jones, Gwendolyn Knight, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, James A. Porter, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Augusta Savage, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Hale Woodruff. 8vo (10.5 x 7 in.), cloth, d.j. First ed. CHAMBERS, LUCILLE ARCOLA. America's Tenth Man. New York: Twayne, 1957. 357 pp., approx. 1000 illus. Foreword by Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. A pictorial review of the African American contribution to American life. Includes: Alonzo Aden, Charles Alston, William E. Artist, Henry Bannarn, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Eloise Bishop, Bob Blackburn, Emile Broussard, Selma Burke, Elmer Simms Campbell, George Washington Carver, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Charles C. Davis, Charles Dawson, Aaron Douglas, Robert S. Duncanson, Mrs. Charley Rosenberg Foster, Allan R. Freelon, Rex Goreleigh, Bernard Goss, William T. Goss, Palmer Hayden, Zell Ingram, Joshua Johnson, Sargent Claude Johnson, John H. Jones, Joseph Kersey, Jacob Lawrence, Edmonia Lewis, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Edgar Patience, Horace Pippin, John Rhoden, Augusta Savage, Albert Alexander Smith, Alma G. Scott (b. 1878; china painter; the only known source for this artist), Henry Ossawa Tanner, Laura Wheeler Waring, Mme. Toussaint Welcome (the only known source for this artist, active Jamaica, NY, with illus., p. 203), Charles White, John Wilson, Hale Woodruff. [Review: The Crisis, November 1957:579.] CHANDLER, OWEN. Negroes and the War. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of War Information, 1942. 71, [1] pp. illus. (incl. portraits). Ed. Owen Chandler. Includes hundreds of photos of African American leaders in government, industry, sports, art and entertainment during the 1940s such as Louis Armstrong, Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Marian Anderson, Joe Louis, Jesse Owens, Mary Bethune, George W. Carver, Benjamin O. Davis, Satchel Paige. Visual artists include Richmond Barthé. 4to (34 x 26 cm.), cloth. CHARLESTON (SC). Gibbes Art Gallery. Reflections of a Southern Heritage: 20th Century Black Artists of the Southeast. September 6-October 28, 1979. Unpag. (52 pp.) exhib. cat., annotated b&w illus. throughout with biographical information on each artist. Intro. by Leo F. Twiggs. Artists listed are Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, William Artis, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Arthur L. Britt, Benjamin Britt, Francis H. (Sonny) Brown, Yvonne Pickering Carter, Claude Clark, Eldzier Cortor, David C. Driskell, Adolphus Ealey, Minnie Evans, Thomas Jefferson Flanagan, Fred Flemister, Edwin Augustus Harleston, Palmer Hayden, James V. Herring, Terry Hunter, Wilmer Jennings, Jesse Jeter, Malvin Gray Johnson, William H. Johnson, Larry Francis Lebby, Henri Linton, Lev Mills, Jimmie Mosley, Archibald Motley, James A. Porter, Lee Ransaw, James Reuben Reed, Gregory Ridley, Arthur Rose, Augusta Savage, Merton Simpson, Hughie Lee-Smith, Alma Thomas, Leo F. Twiggs, James Watkins, Edward B. Webster, James Lesesne Wells. An additional film series featured: "Two Centuries of Black American Art," "Made in Mississippi: Black Folk Art and Crafts" and "Black Art of the U.S.A." [Traveled to: Greenville County Museum of Art, November 9-December 6, 1979; Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, SC, January 13-February 17, 1980.] [Review: Lynne Langley, "Charleston Black Arts Festival Focuses on Twentieth Century Work," The News and Courier (Charleston), September 7, 1979: 11 artists mentioned by name (with several misspellings); no illus.] 8vo (24 x 16 cm.), wraps. First ed. CHASE, JUDITH WRAGG. Afro-American Art and Craft. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1971. 142 pp., 227 b&w illus., bibliog. Noteworthy inclusion of early plantation craftsmen, cabinetmakers, weavers, quiltmakers, basketmakers and woodcarvers as well as contemporary African American art and crafts. Includes: Charles Alston, William Artis, Ernest Crichlow, Allan Rohan Crite, Eldzier Cortor, William Craft, Dale Brockman Davis, Aaron Douglas, Minnie Evans, Regina Foreman, Allan Freelon, Reginald Gammon, William Hayden, Jacob Lawrence, Horace Pippin, Phillip P. Simmons, Peter Simmons, Elmer Davis Taylor, James Lesesne Wells, and hundreds of others. 4to, cloth, d.j. First ed. CHICAGO (IL). Art Institute of Chicago. A Century of Collecting: African American Art in the Art Institute of Chicago. February 15-May 18, 2003. Group exhibition. Curated by Daniel Schulman, associate curator of modern and contemporary art. 60 artists (over half contemporary) including: Benny Andrews, Radcliffe Bailey, Richmond Barthé, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Romare Bearden, Dawoud Bey, Hilda Wilkinson Brown, Margaret Burroughs, William S. Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Edward Clark, Kerry Stuart Coppin, Eldzier Cortor, Allan Rohan Crite, Charles C. Dawson, Aaron Douglas, John E. Dowell, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Melvin Edwards, Walter Ellison, Sam Gilliam, David Hammons, William Harper, George Herriman, Earlie Hudnall, Jr., Richard Hunt, Joshua Johnson, Rashid Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Joseph Kersey, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Glenn Ligon, Kerry James Marshall, Willie Middlebrook, Keith Morrison, Archibald J. Motley, Marion Perkins, Allie Pettway, Jessie T. Pettway, Robert Pious, Adrian Piper, Horace Pippin, Martin Puryear, Faith Ringgold, William Edouard Scott, Vincent Smith, Nelson Stevens, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, Henry Ossawa Tanner, James Vanderzee, Kara Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, Gearldine Westbrook, Charles White, Sarah Ann Wilson, Hale Woodruff, Joseph E. Yoakum. CHICAGO (IL). Art Institute of Chicago. African Americans in Art: Selections from the Art Institute of Chicago. 1999. Museum studies, v. 24, no. 2, 140-272, illus. (some in color), substantial bibliog. pp. 260-272. Essays by Susan F. Rossen, Colin L. Westerbeck, Amy M. Mooney (on Archibald J. Motley, Jr.), Andrea D. Barnwell and Kirsten P. Buick, Daniel Schulman (very important text on Marion Perkins), Cherise Smith (on Simpson, Weems and Willie Robert Middlebrook). Artists include: Samuel J. Miller, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Marion Perkins, Lorna Simpson; Carrie Mae Weems, Willie Robert Middlebrook, Joshua Johnson, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Joseph Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Walter Ellison, Horace Pippin, James Vanderzee, Eldzier Cortor, Hilda Wilkinson Brown, William H. Johnson, Richmond Barthé, Beauford Delaney, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Margaret Burroughs, Roy DeCarava, Charles White, Elizabeth Catlett, Richard Hunt, Melvin Edwards, Vincent D. Smith; Robert Thompson, Joseph Yoakum, Alma Thomas, Romare Bearden, Adrian Piper, Kerry Coppin, Kerry James Marshall, Kara Walker. Topics include Frederick A. Douglass, definitions of African American Art, mixed media work, sculpture. 4to (26 cm.), wraps. CHICAGO (IL). Art Institute of Chicago. Catalogue of a Century of Progress: Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture, 1934. June 1-November 1, 1934. xii, 103 pp. exhib. cat., col. frontis. illus, bibliog. Text by Daniel Catton Rich. Group exhibition. Included: Archibald J. Motley, Richmond Barthé. CHICAGO (IL). Art Institute of Chicago. Negro in Art Week, exhibition of primitive African sculpture, modern paintings, sculpture, drawings, applied art, and books. November 16-December 1, 1927. Exhib. cat., 20 b&w illus. Cover design by Charles C. Dawson. The exhibition was sponsored by the Chicago Woman's Club consisted of 48 contemporary paintings and sculptures exhibited at the Art Insitute of Chicago; plus 46 works exhibited at the Women's Club from November 16-23 (paintings, various drawings, and examples of decorative art, and the Blondiau Collection of African Art from the Belgian Congo.) Artists exhibited at the Art Institute included: Henry Ossawa Tanner ("The Two Disciples at the Tomb," "The Three Marys," "The Flight into Egypt," and "The Poor Ye Have with You Always.") E. M. Bannister ("Water Scene"), Charles C. Dawson ("The Quadroon Madonna," "Brother and Sister," and "Searchlights"), Arthur Diggs ("Oaks and Adders," "The Scintillas" and "Summer"), Aaron Douglas ("Ann," "Nita" and "A Mohawk"), William M. Farrow ("A Relic" and "Aida"), Meta Warrick Fuller, John Hardrick ("Sydonia" and four other portraits), Edwin A. Harleston ("Portrait of Mr. Jesse Binga" and "The Bible Student"), William A. Harper (4 paintings entitled Landscape), Ellis Wilson, Hale Woodruff ("Two Old Women," "In the Garden," "Snowscene" and "Twilight"), seven paintings by Williams E. Scott, two busts by Edmonia Lewis ("James Peck Thomas" and "Charles Sumner"), Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller ("Plague" from The Seasons). Artists exhibited at the Women's Club included: Charles C. Dawson, Aaron Douglas, Elise Evans, K.D. Ganaway, Leslie Rogers, Albert Smith, William Edouard Scott, Miss M. Brackett, Miss C. Rosenberg Foster, Mrs. Minnie Patterson, Miss Anna Bell Thomas, William M. Farrow, Richmond Barthé. [The dual venue catalogue and a scrapbook assembled and preserved by the Chicago Woman's Club are now in the Chicago Historical Society Archive; another copy of the catalogue is in the Smithsonian library collection at the American Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC.] See full scan of the copy in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago: http://artic.edu/aic/libraries/pubs/1927/AIC1927NIAWeek_comb.pdf. Tall 4to, pictorial wraps. CHICAGO (IL). Chicago Art League. Annual Exhibition of the Chicago Art League. April, 1928. Group exhibition. Included: busts by Richmond Barthé, including Henry Ossawa Tanner, Toussaint L'Ouverture, and others, all executed while still a student at the Art Institute of Chicago. [Review of Barthé's work in this show and generally: William H.A. Moore, Opportunity, Journal of Negro Life (November 1928)] CHICAGO (IL). Chicago Public Library. WPA and the Black Artist: Chicago and New York. 1978. 16 pp., color cover illus., 17 b&w illus. Checklist of 62 works by 13 New York artists and 21 Chicago artists. Intro. by Ruth Ann Stewart. Artists included: Charles Alston, Robert Blackburn, Selma Burke, Margaret Burroughs, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Joseph Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Rex Goreleigh, Vertis Hayes, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Archibald Motley, Gordon Parks, Augusta Savage, Charles White, Henry Avery, Richmond Barthé, William Carter, Charles Dawson, Walter W. Ellison, Ramon Gabriel, Bernard Goss, Fred Hollingsworth, Joseph Kersey, William McBride, Frank Neal, Marion Perkins, Charles Sebree, Dox Thrash, Vernon Winslow. Biographies mention Alonzo Aden, James Porter, Hale Woodruff. [Traveled to: Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, NY.] 8vo, stapled stiff wraps. CHICAGO (IL). Federal Works Administration. Cavalcade of the American Negro. Chicago: Diamond Jubilee Exposition Authority, July 4-December 2, 1940. Compiled by the Workers of the Writers' Program of the Works Progress Administration of the State in the State of Illinois. 93 pp., frontis. illus. by Adrian Troy, printed in brown. Foreword by Truman K. Gibson, Jr.; pref. by Curtis D. MacDougall. Chapters cover religious leadership, music, literature and art, labor unions, sharecroppers, sports, journalism and the Black press, politics. Artists included: Edward Bannister, William Simpson, John G. Chaplin, Scipio Moorhead, Robert Duncanson, Edmonia Lewis, Henry Tanner, William E. Scott, Meta Fuller, May Jackson, Richmond Barthé, Augusta Savage, Aaron Douglas, Hale Woodruff [as Hade], Simms Campbell. [All or part of this show traveled to the Downtown Gallery, NY, 1941.] 8vo, red cloth, gilt lettered spine, front cover title blind stamped in gray and white. First ed. CHICAGO (IL). Illinois Art Gallery, Illinois State Museum. The Flowering: African-American Artists and Friends in 1940s Chicago: A Look at the South Side Community Art Center. April 7-May 28, 1993. Exhib. cat., checlist of works. Curated by Judith Burson Lloyd and Anna Tyler. Group exhibition. Included: Ernest Alexander, Henry Avery, Richmond Barthé, Katherine Bell, Sylvester Britton, Margaret Burroughs, William Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Irene Clark, Eldzier Cortor, Robert Tyler Crump, Charles Vincent Davis, Walter Ellison, William McKnight Farrow, Ramon Gabriel, Bernard Goss, Fred Hollingsworth, Richard Hunt, Frederick D. Jones (as Fred), Joe Kersey, Clarence Lawson, Hughie Lee-Smith, William McBride, Archibald Motley, Frank Neal, George Neal, Gordon Parks, Marion Perkins, Ramon Price, Walter Sanford, William Edouard Scott, Allen Stringfellow, Earl M. Walker, William (Bill) Weaver, Charles White. [Review: Garrett Holg, "Recalling a Cultural Oasis on South Side," Chicago Sun-Times, (May 9, 1993):9.] CHICAGO (IL). Renaissance Society, University of Chicago. Paintings and Sculpture by American Negro Artists. December 8-20, 1936. Group exhibition. Included: Richmond Barthé, Samuel A. Countee, Otis Galbreath, Palmer Hayden, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Suzanne Ogunjami Wilson (as Suzanna Ogunjami), Allan Rohan Crite, James Porter, J. H. D. Robinson (as J.D.H.), Winfred Jonathan Russell, Charles Sebree, Laura Wheeler Waring, and Hale Woodruff. CHICAGO (IL). South Side Community Art Center. We Too Look at America [Opening exhibit of paintings by Negro artists of the Illinois Art Project, Work Projects Administration]. December 16, 1940-January 28, 1941. Exhib. cat. Dedication by Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt. Includes: Richmond Barthé, Margaret Taylor Goss [Burroughs], John Carlis, Jr., William S. Carter, Eldzier Cortor, Charles V. Davis, Ramon Gabriel, Joseph Kersey, William McBride, Archibald Motley, George E. Neal, Gordon Parks, Charles Sebree, Charles White. [Review: Selma Gordon, "Seventy-Five Years of Negro Progress," The Crisis 48 (January 1941):10-11+.] [Chicago Public Library N6487.C52S72]. CHICAGO (IL). Tanner Art Galleries. Exhibition of the Art of the American Negro (1851-1940). July 4-September 2, 1940. Exhib. cat., 18 illus. Assembled by the American Negro Exposition. Statement by Alain Locke, chairman of the art committee; lists selections jury, awards jury, exhibition committees. Included 100 artists: Charles Alston, William E. Artis, John Ingliss Atkinson, Henry Avery, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Leslie G. Bolling, Selma Burke, Margaret Burroughs, Simms Campbell, Fred Carlo, William S. Carter, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Allan Rohan Crite, Charles C. Davis, Charles C. Dawson, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Robert S. Duncanson, Elba Lightfoot DeReyes, Walter Ellison, William M. Farrow, Elton Fax, Frederick C. Flemister, Allan R. Freelon, Meta Vaux Fuller, Reginald Gammon, Rex Goreleigh, Bernard Goss, J. Eugene Grigsby, John Hardrick, Edwin Harleston, William A. Harper, Palmer C. Hayden, William M. Hayden, Vertis Hayes, James Herring, Fred Hollingsworth, Zell Ingram, Burt Jackson, Robert M. Jackson, Louise E. Jefferson, Wilmer Jennings, Malvin Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lawrence Arthur Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Joseph Kersey, Jacob Lawrence (won second prize), Clarence Lawson, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Richard Lindsey, Romeyn Van Vleck Lippman, Ed Loper, Rosemary Louis, John Lutz, Francis McGee, Ron Moody, Archibald J. Motley, George E. Neal, Robert L. Neal, Marion Perkins, Frederick Perry, Robert Pious, Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, Georgette Powell, Teodoro Ramos-Blanco (South American artist), Donald Reid, John Rollins, David Ross, Charles Sallee, Augusta Savage, Charles Sebree, Samuel Simms, Albert A. Smith, Marvin Smith, Mary E. Smith, William E. Smith, Thelma Streat, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Dox Thrash, Daniel N. Tillman, Earl Walker, Laura Wheeler Waring, Wilbert (Masood Ali) Warren, Claude Weaver, Albert Wells, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Ellis Wilson, Leroy Winbush, Hale Woodruff, Leon Wright. [Among the many reviews: Selma Gordon, "Seventy-Five Years of Negro Progress," The Criss 48 (January 1941):10-11+; mainstream review in Newsweek Vol XVI, No 11, September 9, 1940.] 8vo, pictorial wraps. Exhibition poster and catalogue cover design by James Lesesne Wells. CLAPP, JANE, ed. Sculpture Index. Metuchen (NJ): Scarecrow, 1970. Vol. 2: Sculpture of the Americas, the Orient, Africa, the Pacific area, and the classical world. 1369 pp. Includes: Charles H. Alston, William E. Artis, Henry Bannarn, Richmond Barthé, Leslie Bolling, Selma Burke, Elizabeth Catlett, Barbara Chase-Riboud, William Edmondson, Meta Vaux Fuller, Richard Hunt, May Howard Jackson, Sargent Johnson, Joseph Kersey, Edmonia Lewis, Guy L. Miller, Hayward Oubre, Marion Perkins, John W. Rhoden, Gregory D. Ridley, Augusta Savage, Carroll Simms, Daniel Warburg, Eugene Warburg, John Wilson. CLAREMONT (CA). Ruth Chandler Williamson Gallery, Scripps College. African-American Visions: Selections From the Samella Lewis Collections. September 1-October 14, 2012. Exhib. cat., illus. Text by Mary MacNaughton. Included: Richmond Barthé, John T. Biggers, Elizabeth Catlett, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Jacob Lawrence, Samella Lewis, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, and John T. Scott. CLARKE, JOHN HENRIK, ed. Harlem U.S.A.. Berlin: Seven Seas, 1964. 409 pp., illus. Anthology of writings developed and expanded from an issue of Freedomways. Contributions by James Baldwin, Langston Hughes, Alice Childress, Paule Marshall, Claude McKay, Lorraine Hansberry, Oliver Harrington (including some Bootsie cartoons), a survey of Harlem artists, Charles White, John Biggers, Elizabeth Catlett, Jacob Lawrence and Richmond Barthé, mention of Elton Fax and many others; photographs by numerous white photographers (John Taylor, Alvin Simpson and Paul Breslow), and much more. Small 8vo (20 x 13 cm.), cloth, d.j. First ed. COLEMAN, FLOYD WILLIS. Persistence and Discontinuity of Traditional Perception in Afro-American Art. Athens: University of Georgia, 1975. Focus on African heritage and on artists whose work is influenced by African art and culture. Artists include: William Artis, Edward Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Skunder Boghossian, Ed Clark, James Cooper, Eldzier Cortor, Aaron Douglas, Robert Douglass, Robert Duncanson, William Edmondson, Meta Warrick Fuller, Henry Gudgell, Edwin Harleston, William Harper, Palmer Hayden, Rosalind Jeffries, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Ben Jones, Lois Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Jim Lee, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Samella Lewis, McLean's Slave, Evangeline Montgomery, Scipio Moorhead [as Morehead], Archibald Motley, J. W. C. Pennington, James Phillips, Gary Rickson, Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Charles Sebree, William Simpson, Henry O. Tanner, Lovett Thompson, Jack Thurman, Neptune Thurston, William Walker, Eugene Warburg, Charles White, Hale Woodruff. Ph.D. Dissertation. COLLEGE PARK (MD). University of Maryland Art Gallery. Narratives of African American Art and Identity: The David C. Driskell Collection. 1998. 192 pp., 94 color plates, 33 b&w illus., checklist of 100 works by 61 artists, biogs., bibliog. Text by Terry Gipps. Important artist's collection. Includes: Terry Adkins, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Grafton Tyler Brown, Elizabeth Catlett, Claude Clark, Sr., Robert Colescott, Eldzier Cortor, Allan Rohan Crite, Roy DeCarava, Beauford Delaney, Aaron Douglas, David Driskell, Robert S. Duncanson, Melvin Edwards, Minnie Evans, Meta Warrick Fuller, Sam Gilliam, Michael D. Harris, James V. Herring, Earl J. Hooks, Margo Humphrey, Clementine Hunter, Wilmer Jennings, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Richard Mayhew, Jerome Meadows, William McNeil, Sam Middleton, Keith Morrison, Mary Lovelace O'Neal, James Phillips, Stephanie Pogue, P.H. Polk, Charles Ethan Porter, James A. Porter, Martin Puryear, Ray Saunders, Augusta Savage, Charles Sebree, Frank Smith, Vincent Smith, Gilda Snowden, Frank Stewart, Lou Stovall, Henry O. Tanner, Bill Traylor, Alma Thomas, Yvonne Edwards Tucker, James VanDerZee, Laura Wheeler Waring, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Walter Williams, William T. Williams, Ellis Wilson, Hale Woodruff. 4to (12 x 9 in.), cloth, d.j. First ed. COLLEGE PARK (MD). University of Maryland Art Gallery. Selections from the David C. Driskell Collection. January 20-March 22, 2003. An exhibition of work by 39 major African American artists: Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John T. Biggers, Grafton Tyler Brown, Elizabeth Catlett, Kevin E. Cole, Bob Colescott, Eldzier Cortor, Allan Rohan Crite, Roy DeCarava, Aaron Douglas, Meta Warrick Fuller, Sam Gilliam, Michael D. Harris, Earl J. Hooks, Margo Humphrey, Clementine Hunter, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Keith Morrison, Mary Lovelace O'Neal, Stephanie Pogue, Martin Puryear, Augusta Savage, Frank E. Smith, Frank Stewart, Lou Stovall, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, James Vanderzee, Laura Wheeler Waring, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Walter J. Williams, William T. Williams, Hale Woodruff. COLUMBUS (OH). Ohio Historical Center. Soul! Art from the National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center [Wilburforce]. May 1, 2009-February 27, 2010. Group exhibition. Curated by Floyd Thomas. Included: Cedric Adams, Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, Akosua Bandele, Richard Barclift, Richmond Barthé, John P. Beckley, Tina Brewer, Ashley Bryan, Calvin Burnett, Margarret Burroughs, Elizabeth Catlett, Dana Chandler, Claude Clark, Jeffrey Clark, Mary Reed Daniels, Willis (Bing) Davis, Louis Delsarte, Hayward Dinsmore, Raymond Dobard, Jeff Donaldson, Elton C. Fax, Tom Feelings, Manuel Gomez, Bernard Goss, M. E. Grayson, Clementine Hunter, Christina James, Brian Joiner, Jimi Jones, Jack Jordan, Clayton Lang, Jon Onye Lockard, Nola Lynch-Sheldon, Martina Johnson Allen, Victor Matthews, Valerie Maynard, Sylvia M. Miller, Velma Morris, Ademola Olugebefola, Elijah Pierce, Steve Prince, Patrick Reason, Annie Ruth, Betye Saar, Michael Sampson, Walter Simon, Michael Smith (sculptor), Ayanna Spears, Ann Tanksley, Yvonne Edwards Tucker, Harry Washington, Richard Wyatt, James "Bongo" Allen and unknown artist named Tilman. [Review: Kevin Joy, "Selections cover range of experiences by African-Americans" Columbus Dispatch, May 4, 2009; illus. "Golden Prison" by Dana Chandler.]: COOKS, BRIDGET R. Exhibiting Blackness: African Americans and the American Art Museum. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2011. 240 pp., color illus., notes, index. The narrative begins in 1927 with the Chicago "Negro in Art Week" exhibition, and in the 1930s with the Museum of Modern Art's exhibition of "William Edmondson" (1937) and "Contemporary Negro Art" (1939) at the Baltimore Museum of Art; the focus, however, is on exhibitions held from the 1960s to present with chapters on "Harlem on My Mind" (1969), "Two Centuries of Black American Art" (1976); "Black Male" (1994-95); and "The Quilts of Gee's Bend" (2202). Numerous artists, but most mentioned only in passing: Cedric Adams, Charles Alston, Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, numerous Bendolphs (Annie, Jacob, Mary Ann, Mary Lee, Louisiana) and Loretta Bennett, Ed Bereal, Donald Bernard, Nayland Blake, Gloria Bohanon, Leslie Bolling, St. Clair Bourne, Cloyd Boykin, Kay Brown, Selma Burke, Bernie Casey, Roland Charles, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Claude Clark, Linda Day Clark, Robert Colescott, Dan Concholar, Emilio Cruz, Ernest Crichlow (footnote only), Alonzo Davis, Selma Day (footnote only), Roy DeCarava, Aaron Douglas, Emory Douglas, Robert M. Douglass, Jr., David Driskell, Robert S. Duncanson, William Edmondson, Elton Fax (footnote only), Cecil L. Fergerson, Roland Freeman, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, Reginald Gammon (footnote only), K.D. Ganaway, Sam Gilliam, David Hammons, William A. Harper, Palmer Hayden, Vertis C. Hayes, Barkley L. Hendricks, James V. Herring, Richard Hunt, Rudy Irwin, May Howard Jackson, Suzanne Jackson, Joshua Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Gwendolyn Knight, Wifredo Lam, Artis Lane, Jacob Lawrence, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Samella Lewis, Alvin Loving (footnote only), William Majors (footnote only), Richard Mayhew, Reginald McGhee, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Richard Mayhew, Willie Middlebrook, Ron Moody, Lottie and Lucy Mooney, Flora Moore, Scipio Moorhead, Norma Morgan, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Sara Murrell (footnote only), Otto Neals (footnote only), Odili Donald Odita, Noni Olubisi, Ademola Olugebefola, John Outterbridge, Gordon Parks, six Pettways (Annie E., Arlonzia, Bertha, Clinton, Jr., Jesse T., Letisha), James Phillips, Howardena Pindell, Horace Pippin, Carl Pope, James A. Porter, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Noah Purifoy, Martin Puryear, Okoe Pyatt (footnote only), Robert Reid (footnote only), John Rhoden, John Riddle, Faith Ringgold (footnote only), Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders (footnote only), Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Georgette Seabrook, James Sepyo (footnote only), Taiwo Shabazz (footnote only), Gary Simmons, Lorna Simpson, Merton Simpson (footnote only), Albert Alexander Smith, Arenzo Smith, Frank Stewart, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Danny Tisdale, Melvin Van Peebles, James Vanderzee, Annie Walker, Kara Walker, Augustus Washington, Timothy Washington, Carrie Mae Weems, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Pat Ward Williams, William T. Williams, Deborah Willis, Fred Wilson, Ernest C. Withers, Beulah Ecton Woodard, Hale Woodruff, Lloyd Yearwood, Annie Mae and Nettie Pettway Young. 8vo (9 x 6 in.), wraps. CUREAU, HAROLD G. The Historic Roles of Black American Artists: A Profile of Struggle. 1977. In: Black Scholar 9 (November 1977) 3, 2-13. Mentions Edward M. Bannister, Edmonia Lewis, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Patrick H. Reason, Robert S. Duncanson, Aaron Douglas, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Hale Woodruff, Palmer Hayden, Richmond Barthé, Sargent Johnson, James A. Porter, Elizabeth Catlett, Benny Andrews, Cliff Johnson. 8vo, wraps. DALLAS (TX). Hall of Negro Life, Texas Centennial Exposition. Texas Centennial Exposition: Exhibition of Fine Art Productions by American Negroes. June 19-November 29, 1936. The visual arts exhibitions were curated by Alonzo J. Aden. Art in the Hall of Negro Life included: a large bas-relief seal sculpted by Raoul Josset over the door depicting a figure with broken chains. Four murals of black history were commissioned from Aaron Douglas and were displayed in the lobby: Bondage (Corcoran Gallery) and Aspiration (San Francisco Museum of Art); the other two are believed lost. Two rooms of paintings and sculpture by Texas artists Samuel A. Countee and an unknown artist from Galveston named Frank Sheinall as well as artists from other states whose work was loaned by the Harmon Foundation. Included: Henry O. Tanner, James Latimer Allen, Allan Rohan Crite, Palmer Hayden, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., James L. Wells, Hale Woodruff, Laura Wheeler Waring, Arthur Diggs, Malvin Gray Johnson, and Hilda Brown, Richmond Barthé, Sargent Johnson, Robert Pious, Leslie Bolling, and Henry Letcher (potter.) [Review/article by curator Alonzo J. Aden, "Educational Tour Through the Hall of Negro Life," Southern Workman [Hampton, VA] 65 (November 1936):331-341 mentions Aaron Douglas murals, Richmond Barthé, Archibald Motley, Sargent Johnson, James Wells, Hale Woodruff, Samuel Countee, Laura Waring, Leslie Bolling [as Boling], Henry Letcher, R.A. Johnson; photo of Elton Fax.] DETROIT (MI). Flint Institute of Arts. Promises of Freedom: Selections from the Arthur Primas Collection. February 27-April 17, 2011. Group exhibition. Included: Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Larry Brown, Elizabeth Catlett, Robert Colescott, Bryan Collier, Beauford Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Curtis E. James, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Al Loving, Richard Mayhew, Howardena Pindell, Mario Robinson, Charles Searles, Bob Thompson, Charles White, Hale Woodruff, et al. [Traveled to: California African American Museum, Los Angeles, CA, April 19-September 2, 2012.] DOVER, CEDRIC. American Negro Art. New York: New York Graphic Society, 1960. 186 pp., over 300 illus., 8 color plates, bibliog. by Maureen Dover, index of artists and works, general index. Ground-breaking study, still extremely important for illustrations of work by artists not illustrated elsewhere, and many others mentioned as well. Includes (some with only brief mention): John Henry Adams, Jr., Alonzo Aden, William Artis, Henry Bannarn, Edward Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Robert Blackburn, Elizabeth Catlett, Barbara Chase, Irene Clark, Claude Clark, Eldzier Cortor, Charles C. Davis, Beauford Delaney, Richard Dempsey, Aaron Douglas, Robert Duncanson, Elton Fax, Meta Warrick Fuller, Rex Goreleigh, Eugene Grigsby, Jr., Phillip Hampton, Edwin A. Harleston, William M. Hayden, Vertis Hayes, G. W. Hobbs (now known to be white), Alvin Hollingsworth, Earl Hooks, Humbert Howard, Julien Hudson, Richard Hunt, May Howard Jackson, Wilmer Jennings, Malvin Gray Johnson, William H. Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Lois Mailou Jones, Jack Jordan, Joseph Kersey, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Edward Loper, Scipio Moorhead, Archibald Motley, Haywood Oubré, Marion Perkins, Harper Phillips, Horace Pippin, James Porter, Patrick Reason, John Rhoden, John Robinson, Walter Sanford, Augusta Savage, Charles Sebree, Carroll Simms, Merton Simpson, William Simpson, Henry O. Tanner, Alma Thomas, Dox Thrash, Eugene Warburg, James Wells, Charles White, Walter Williams, Stan Williamson, Ed Wilson, Edwin E. Wilson, Ellis Wilson, John Wilson, Hale Woodruff. [Reviews: Margaret Burroughs, Freedomways 1 (Spring 1961):107-110; Romare Bearden, Leonardo [Oxford, England] 3 (Apr. 1970):241-243; Numa J. Roussève, Interracial Review [St. Louis, MO] 34 (May 1961):140-141.] 8vo (25 cm.), cloth, d.j. First ed. DRISKELL, DAVID C. Two Centuries of Black American Art. Los Angeles: Museum of Art, 1976. 221 pp. exhib. cat., 205 illus., 32 in color, bibliog., index. Groundbreaking survey exhibition of African American art. Texts by Driskell; catalogue notes by Leonard Simon. Includes Dave the Potter, Charles H. Alston, William E. Artis, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Grafton Tyler Brown, David Butler, Selma Burke, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Burroughs, Elizabeth Catlett, Claude Clark, Eldzier Cortor, Allan Rohan Crite, Thomas Day, Joseph Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Robert S. Duncanson, William Edmondson, Minnie Evans, Edwin A. Harleston, Palmer Hayden, Felrath Hines, Earl J. Hooks, Julien Hudson, Clementine Hunter, Wilmer Jennings, James Butler Johnson, Joshua Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Richard Mayhew, Sam Middleton, Leo Moss, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Marion Perkins, Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, Patrick Reason, John Rhoden, Gregory Ridley, Jr., William E. Scott, Charles Sebree, Henry Ossawa Tanner, William (Bill) Taylor, Alma Thomas, Dox Thrash, Laura Wheeler Waring, Edward Webster, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Walter Williams, Ed Wilson, Ellis Wilson, John Wilson, Hale Woodruff. Additional artists mentioned in the text: James Allen, Leslie Bolling, John Kane (?), Jules Lion, James Vanderzee, many more. [Traveled to Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, CA; High Museum of Art, Atlanta, GA; Museum of Fine Arts, Dallas, TX; and the Brooklyn Museum, NY.] 4to, wraps. First ed. DRISKELL, DAVID, et al. Amistad II (Cover title: To Feed People's Souls). United Church Press, 1976. Unpag. (16 pp.) exhib. cat., 13 b&w illus., 4 color plates. Exhibition pamphlet published to accompany the historically important bicentennial traveling exhibition of Afro-American art (1870-1975). Illustrations include: Richmond Barthé, David C. Driskell, Romare Bearden, Hale Woodruff, William H. Johnson, S. Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, E. Catlett, J. Porter, Gregory Ridley, Charles White, E. A. Harleston, Aaron Douglas, E. Bannister, Lois Mailou Jones. Not to be confused with the large catalogue by the same title. 12mo, stapled wraps. First ed. EBONY, DAVID. Richmond Barthé and Richard Hunt at the Anacostia Museum. 1993. In: Art in America (July 1993):109. Brief exhibition review. 4to, wraps. EMBREE, EDWIN R. Brown Americans: The Story of a Tenth of the Nation. New York: Viking, 1943. vi, 248 pp., illus. Brief mention (all on one page) of eight artists: Augusta Savage, Richmond Barthé, Aaron Douglas, Hale Woodruff, Dox Thrash, Jacob Lawrence, Charles Alston, E. Simms Campbell. ["Not merely a revision of Brown America, which was first published in 1931. While it brings facts and figures up to date, it is really a new writing about a fresh stage in the growth of America's Negro minority."--Authors note] 8vo (21 cm.), cloth, d.j. Second edition. ESCOFFERY, GLORIA. The Impact of Nationhood: The Art World of The Early Sixties. 1986. In: Jamaica Journal (Kingston) Vol. 19, no. 3 (1986):43-48. A review of the gallery scene, collectors, critics and artists of this period in which Escoffery herself was an important contributor. Mentions several important exhibitions and a dozen artists in passing. ESTELL, KENNETH. African America: Portrait of a People. Detroit: Visible Ink, 1994. Section on Fine and Applied Arts pp. 593-655 mentions a sizeable number of artists (with many misspellings): Scipio Moorhead, Eugene Warburg, Bill Day [presumably Thomas Day], Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Henry Bannarn, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé (photo), Jean-Michel Basquiat, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Camille Billops, Robert Blackburn, curator Horace Brockington, Elmer Brown, Eugene Brown, Kay Brown, Linda Bryant, Selma Burke, Margaret Burroughs, E. Simms Campbell, Elizabeth Catlett, Cathy Chance, Dana Chandler, Gylbert Coker, Robert Colescott, Houston Conwill, Michael Cummings, Ernest Crichlow, Emilio Cruz, Roy DeCarava (with photo), Beauford Delaney, Aaron Douglas, David Driskell, Robert Duncanson, William Edmondson, Elton Fax, (with photo), Meta Warrick Fuller, Sam Gilliam, David Hammons, Philip Hampton, Florence Harding (as Harney), Palmer Hayden, James V. Herring, George Hulsinger, Richard Hunt, Clementine Hunter, Zell Ingram, Venola Jennings, Larry Johnson, Lester L. Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Ben Jones, Emeline King, Jacob Lawrence (with photo); Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Samella Lewis, Ionis Bracy Martin, Cheryl McClenny, Geraldine McCullough, Evangeline J. Montgomery, Jimmy Mosely, Juanita Moulon, Archibald Motley (with photo), Otto Neals, Senga Nengudi, Ademola Olugebefola, Hayward Oubré, John Outterbridge, Gordon Parks, Marion Perkins, Delilah Pierce, Howardena Pindell, Jerry Pinkney, Horace Pippin, James Porter, Florence Purviance, Martin Puryear, Faith Ringgold, Betye Saar, Charles Sallee, Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Charles Searles, Lorna Simpson, Willi Smith (with photo), William E. Smith, Edward Spriggs, F. [Doc] Spellmon, Nelson Stevens, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Jean Taylor, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, Dox Thrash, James VanDerZee, Laura Waring, Faith Weaver, Edward T. P. Welburn, Charles White, Randy Williams, William T. Williams (with photo), John Wilson, Hale Woodruff, Dolores Wright, Richard Yarde, and George Washington Carver. Also mentions fashion designers Stephen Burrows (photo), Gordon Henderson, Willi Smith. 4to, cloth. FABRE, GENEVIEVE and MICHEL FEITH, eds. Temples for Tomorrow: Looking back at the Harlem Renaissance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001. x, 392 pp., illus., music. Includes among the many essays: The syncopated African: constructions of origins in the Harlem Renaissance (literature, music, visual arts) by Michel Feith; Oh Africa! The influence of African art during the Harlem Renaissance by Amy H. Kirschke; Oscar Micheaux and the Harlem Renaissance by Clyde Taylor. Substantial discussion of Oscar Micheaux and Aaron Douglas. Other visual artists mentioned only in passing include: Josephine Baker, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, William Dawson, Meta Warrick Fuller, Sargent Claude Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, and Jacob Lawrence. 8vo (24 cm.), cloth, d.j. FABRE, MICHEL. From Harlem to Paris: Black American Writers in France, 1840-1980. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991. 358 pp. Although the focus is on writers, musicians and visual artists are mentioned as well. Artists mentioned include: Josephine Baker, Richmond Barthé, Hart Leroy Bibbs, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Ed Clark, Beauford Delaney, Palmer Hayden, Hector Hyppolite, Ted Joans, Clarence Major, Sam Middleton, Gordon Parks, Elizabeth Prophet, Henry O. Tanner, Melvin Van Peebles, Eugene Warburg, Hale Woodruff. Passing mention of numerous others such as Larry Potter, Walter Coleman, Agustín Cardenas, Wifredo Lam (as Wilfredo), Hervé Télémaque, et al. [Fabre's earlier "Les Noirs Americains" (Paris: Librarie Armand Colin, 1970) had mentioned only 8 black visual artists Jacob Lawrence, Palmer Hayden, Charles White, Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, Lawrence Taylor, Beulah Woodward, Richard Hunt.] 8vo (9.3 x 6.2 in.), cloth, d.j. First ed. FALK, PETER HASTINGS, ed. The Annual & Biennial Exhibition Record of the Whitney Museum of American Art 1918-1989. Madison, CT: Sound View Press,. Alphabetical listing by artist gives exhibition, work shown, artist's address. Includes exhibitions of the Whitney Studio Club, 1918-29; Whitney Studio Club Galleries, 1928-30; and Whitney Museum of American Art, 1932-89. Includes: Charles Alston; Richmond Barthé; Jean-Michel Basquiat; Romare Bearden, Lynn Bowers, Frank Bowling, Peter Bradley, Marvin Brown, Walter Cade III, Catti, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Edward Clark. Robert Colescott, Beauford Delaney, John E. Dowell Jr., Frederick Eversley, Allan Freelon, Sam Gilliam, Richard Hunt, Oliver Jackson, Daniel LaRue Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Alvin Loving, Richard Mayhew, Samuel M. Middleton Jr., Howardena Pindell;, Horace Pippin, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, Thomas Sills, Charles White, Jack Whitten, Walter Williams, William T. Williams, Hale Woodruff. FALK, PETER HASTINGS, ed. The Annual Art Exhibition Record of the Art Institute of Chicago, 1888-1950. Madison (CT): Sound View Press, 1990. 1117 pp. Includes (among others): Henry Avery, 74 (1937); Richmond Barthé, 89 (1940, 1943); Romare Bearden, 96 (1947); William Sylvester Carter, 192 (1940); Eldzier Cortor, 233 (1940-46, 1948-49); Allan Rohan Crite, 242 (1942); Frank Joseph Dillon; William McKnight Farrow, 316 (1923); William A. Harper, 408-09 (1903-10); Sargent Claude Johnson, 484 (1931); Frederick D. Jones, Jr.; Jacob Lawrence, 541 (1943-44, 1946, 1949); Archibald Motley, 635 (1921-23, 1925, 1929-35, 1949); George Neal, 646 (1936, 1938); Marion Perkins, 695 (1942, 1944, 1947-49, 1951); Horace Pippin, 708 (1943, 1945); William Edouard Scott, 807 (1911); Charles Sebree, 808 (1935-36, 1938, 1940, 1942); Thelma Johnson Streat, 868 (1943); Henry O. Tanner, 878-79 (1896, 1898-99, 1901, 1905-10, 1912-13, 1916, 1923-24, 1926-29, 1939); Laura Wheeler Waring, 948 (1916); Charles White, 948 (1942). FALK, PETER HASTINGS, ed. Who Was Who in American Art, 1564-1975. Madison, CT: Sound View Press, 1999. 3 Vols. 3724 pp. The 1985 publication is a summary compiled from the original 34 volumes of American Art Annual: Who's Who in Art, no new entries. It is in some ways an account of the spotty knowledge that the white art world had acquired about black artists during the decades after WWII. Many glaring omissions. The 1999 edition seems to have substantial additions. Included: Alonzo Aden, Frank Herman Alston, Jr., Frederick Cornelius Alston, Dorothy Austin, Henry Avery, Henry Bannarn, Edward Bannister, Richmond Barthé, John Biggers, James Bland, Leslie Bolling, William E. Braxton, Wendell T. Brooks, Elmer William Brown, Eugene J. Brown, Samuel Joseph Brown, Selma Burke, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Taylor Goss Burroughs, Elmer Simms Campbell, John Carlis, Jr., William S. Carter, Dana C. Chandler, Jr., Samuel O. Collins, Eldzier Cortor, Norma Criss, Allan Crite, Charles C. Dawson, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Arthur Diggs, Frank J. Dillon, Aaron Douglas, Charles Early, Walter W. Ellison, Annette Ensley, William M. Farrow, Allan Freelon, Meta Fuller, Robert Gates, Rex Goreleigh, Donald O. Greene, Samuel P. Greene, Charles E. Haines, John Wesley Hardrick, William A. Harper, John Taylor Harris, Palmer Hayden, Dion Henderson, James V. Herring, Clifton Thompson Hill, Hector Hill, Raymond Howell, Bill Hutson, May Howard Jackson, Oliver Jackson, Wilmer Jennings, George H. Benjamin Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Frederick D. Jones, Jr., Henry B. Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Joseph Kersey, Vivian Schuyler Key, Jacob Lawrence, Bertina B. Lee, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Elba Lightfoot, Ed Loper, John Lutz, William McBride, Sr., Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Robert L. Neal, John B. Payne, Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, Nancy Prophet, Oliver Richard Reid, Earl Richardson, Marion Sampler, Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Charles Sebree, Albert Alexander Smith, Teressa Staats, Thelma J. Streat, Henry O. Tanner, Dox Thrash, Laura Waring, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Benjamin L. Wigfall, Ellis Wilson, John W. Wilson, Hale Woodruff, Terrance Yancey. 4to, cloth. FINE, ELSA HONIG. The Afro-American Artist: A Search for Identity. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1973. x, 310 pp., 342 b&w illus., 38 color plates, bibliography and notes, index. Survey of work from the colonial period through the 1970s. Approx. 100 artists represented. An important reference work with many women artists included: Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Malcolm Bailey, Edward Bannister, Amiri Baraka, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Henry Bibb, Betty Blayton, Grafton Tyler Brown, Kay Brown, Dana Chandler, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Emilio Cruz, Thomas Day, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, Robert M. Douglass, Jr., Robert S. Duncanson, Melvin Edwards, Frederick J. Eversley, Allan Freelon, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, Reginald Gammon, Sam Gilliam, Henry Gudgell, David Hammons, Marvin Harden, William A. Harper, Palmer Hayden, Felrath Hines, Alvin C. Hollingsworth, Julien Hudson, Richard Hunt, Bill Hutson, Walter C. Jackson, Daniel Larue Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Marie Johnson, Milton Derr (as Milton Johnson), Joshua Johnston, Ben Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Cliff Joseph, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, James Lewis, Norman Lewis, Tom Lloyd, Al Loving, Richard Mayhew, Donald McIlvaine, Scipio Moorhead, Norma Morgan, Archibald Motley, George Neal, Joe Overstreet, Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, Patrick Reason, Robert Reid, Gary Rickson, Faith Ringgold, Raymond Saunders, William E. Scott, Christopher Shelton, Thomas Sills, Merton Simpson, William H. Simpson, John H. Smith, Tony Smith, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, Lovett Thompson, Neptune Thurston, Ulysses Vidal, Bill Walker, Eugene Warburg, Charles White, William T. Williams, A. B. Wilson, Hale Woodruff. [Excellent quality reprint in sturdy cloth binding with all original color plates was issued by Hacker, NY, 1982.] Small, 4to, black cloth with silver lettering, d.j. First ed. FORT HUACHUCA (AZ). Mountain View Colored Officer's Club. Exhibition of the Work of 37 Negro Artists. 1943. Group exhibition of 86 works by 37 artists, created under the auspices of the WPA, curated by Holger Cahill from WPA projects. The works were permanently installed in this site until after the war. Included: Earl Walker, Charles White, Vernon Winslow, et al. [Review: Art Digest 7 (August 1943):15, photo of Vernon Winslow, Hale Woodruff, Richmond Barthé, guests at dedication ceremonies. The venue Fort Huachuca was the home of the only two Black Divisions in the history of the U.S. Army, the 92nd & 93rd Divisions, and consequently the largest concentration of black officers. [Mention in Arts Magazine vol. 17 (1942):45.] FRANCIS, JACQUELINE. Making Race: Modernism and "Racial Art" in America. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2011. 256 pp., illus., notes, bibliog., index. A scholarly study of the flowering of racial art rhetoric in criticism and history published in the 1920s and 1930s, and its underlying presence in contemporary discussions of artists of color. Francis takes as her subjects the careers of three artists -- Malvin Gray Johnson, Yasuo Kuniyoshi and Max Weber - exploring the topics across a broader spectrum than the exclusive focus on African American art would permit. Other artists mentioned in passing include: Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Beauford Delaney, Frank J. Dillon, Lillian Dorsey, Palmer Hayden, Edwin Harleston, Wilmer Jennings, William H. Johnson, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Henry Ossawa Tanner, Laura Wheeler Waring, and Hale Woodruff. 4to (22.8 x 17.8 cm.; 9 x 7 in.), wraps FRANKLIN, JOHN HOPE. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans. New York: Knopf. 1967. From the point of view of research in the visual arts, this third edition is preferable to the earlier editions, containing mention of many more artists including spinners, weavers, jewelers, printers and engravers, architects, cabinetmakers. Individual artists receive 5 pp. and include: Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Selma Burke, Simms Campbell, Ernest Crichlow, Aaron Douglas, Meta Fuller, Edwin Harleston, Sargent Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, James Porter, Elizabeth Prophet, Augusta Savage, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Laura Wheeler Waring, Hale Woodruff. GATES, HENRY LOUIS and EVELYN BROOKS HIGGINBOTHAM, eds. African American National Biography. 2009. Originally published in 8 volumes, the set has grown to 12 vollumes with the addition of 1000 new entries. Also available as online database of biographies, accessible only to paid subscribers (well-endowed institutions and research libraries.) As per update of February 2, 2009, the following artists were included in the 8-volume set, plus addenda. A very poor showing for such an important reference work. Hopefully there are many more artists in the new entries: Jesse Aaron, Julien Abele (architect), John H. Adams, Jr., Ron Adams, Salimah Ali, James Latimer Allen, Charles H. Alston, Amalia Amaki, Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, William E. Artis, Herman "Kofi" Bailey, Walter T. Bailey (architect), James Presley Ball, Edward M. Bannister, Anthony Barboza, Ernie Barnes, Richmond Barthé, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Cornelius Marion Battey, Romare Bearden, Phoebe Beasley, Arthur Bedou, Mary A. Bell, Cuesta Ray Benberry, John Biggers, Camille Billops, Howard Bingham, Alpha Blackburn, Robert H. Blackburn, Walter Scott Blackburn, Melvin R. Bolden, David Bustill Bowser, Wallace Branch, Barbara Brandon, Grafton Tyler Brown, Richard Lonsdale Brown, Barbara Bullock, Selma Hortense Burke, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Taylor Goss Burroughs, John Bush, Elmer Simms Campbell, Elizabeth Catlett, David C. Chandler, Jr., Raven Chanticleer, Ed Clark, Allen Eugene Cole, Robert H. Colescott, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest T. Crichlow, Michael Cummings, Dave the Potter [David Drake], Griffith J. Davis, Thomas Day, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Thornton Dial, Sr., Joseph Eldridge Dodd, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, Sam Doyle, David Clyde Driskell, Robert S. Duncanson, Ed Dwight (listed as military, not as artist); Mel Edwards, Minnie Jones Evans, William McNight Farrow, Elton Fax, Daniel Freeman, Meta Warrick Fuller, Reginald Gammon, King Daniel Ganaway, the Goodridge Brothers, Rex Goreleigh, Tyree Guyton, James Hampton, Della Brown Taylor (Hardman), Edwin Augustus Harleston, Charles "Teenie" Harris, Lyle Ashton Harris, Bessie Harvey, Isaac Scott Hathaway, Palmer Hayden, Nestor Hernandez, George Joseph Herriman, Varnette Honeywood, Walter Hood, Richard L. Hunster, Richard Hunt, Clementine Hunter, Bill Hutson, Joshua Johnson, Sargent Claude Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Ann Keesee, Gwendolyn Knight, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Samella Lewis, Glenn Ligon, Jules Lion, Edward Love, Estella Conwill Majozo, Ellen Littlejohn, Kerry James Marshall, Lynn Marshall-Linnemeier, Richard Mayhew, Carolyn Mazloomi, Aaron Vincent McGruder, Robert H. McNeill, Scipio Moorhead, Archibald H. Motley, Jr., Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, Mr. Imagination (Gregory Warmack), Lorraine O'Grady, Jackie Ormes, Joe Overstreet, Carl Owens, Gordon Parks, Sr., Gordon Parks, Jr., C. Edgar Patience, Howardena Pindell, Adrian Margaret Smith Piper, Rose Piper, Horace Pippin, William Sidney Pittman, Stephanie Pogue, Prentiss Herman Polk (as Prentice), James Amos Porter, Harriet Powers, Elizabeth Prophet, Martin Puryear, Patrick Henry Reason, Michael Richards, Arthur Rose, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, Augusta Savage, Joyce J. Scott, Addison Scurlock, George Scurlock, Willie Brown Seals, Charles Sebree, Joe Selby, Lorna Simpson, Norma Merrick Sklarek, Clarissa Sligh, Albert Alexander Smith, Damballah Smith, Marvin and Morgan Smith, Maurice B. Sorrell, Simon Sparrow, Rozzell Sykes, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, J.J. Thomas, Robert Louis (Bob) Thompson, Mildred Jean Thompson, Dox Thrash, William Tolliver, Bill Traylor, Leo F. Twiggs, James Augustus Joseph Vanderzee, Kara Walker, William Onikwa Wallace, Laura Wheeler Waring, Augustus Washington, James W. Washington, Jr., Carrie Mae Weems, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, John H. White, Jack Whitten, Carla Williams, Daniel S. Williams, Paul Revere Williams (architect), Deborah Willis, Ed Wilson, Ellis Wilson, Fred Wilson, John Woodrow Wilson, Ernest C. Withers, Beulah Ecton Woodard, Hale Aspacio Woodruff. GOODRICH, LLOYD and JOHN I. H. BAUR. American Art of Our Century. New York: Praeger, 1961. Catalogue of the Whitney Museum of American Art collection. Includes: Richmond Barthé, Richard Hunt, Jacob Lawrence, Horace Pippin, Elizabeth Prophet, Charles White, and Walter Williams. 8vo. GRIGSBY, J. EUGENE. Art and Ethnics: Background for Teaching Youth in a Pluralistic Society. Dubuque (IA): Wm. C. Brown Company, 1977. 147 pp., illus. Includes: Charles Alston, Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, William Artis, Malcolm Bailey, Mike Bannarn, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Bob Blackburn, Betty Blayton, Selma Burke, George Washington Carver, Elizabeth Catlett, Dana Chandler, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Dan R. Concholar, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Dale Brockman Davis, Beauford Delaney, James T. Diggs, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, Robert S. Duncanson, William M. Farrow, Perry Ferguson, Elton Fax, Doyle Foreman, Meta Vaux Fuller, Reginald Gammon, Sam Gilliam, Joseph W. Gilliard, Manuel Gomez, Rex Goreleigh, Ethel Guest, Edwin A Harleston, Palmer Hayden, Esther P. Hill, Felrath Hines, Alvin C. Hollingsworth, Richard, Hunt, Bob Jefferson, Joshua Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Cliff Joseph, Edward Judie, Jacob Lawrence, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Samella Lewis, Tom Lloyd, Hughie Lee-Smith, William Majors, Richard Mayhew, Earl B. Miller, E.J. Montgomery, Scipio Moorhead, Archibald J. Motley, Robert L. Neal, John Outterbridge, Joe Overstreet, Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, Patrick Reason, Gary Rickson, Augusta Savage, Merton D. Simpson, Albert A. Smith, Vincent D. Smith, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Neptune Thurston, Ruth Waddy, Laura Wheeler Waring, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, John Wilson, Hale Woodruff, Rip Woods, Hartwell Yeargans. HAJOSY, DOLORES. Gallery 62: An Outlet . . . A Bridge. 1985. In: Black American Literature Forum 19, No. 1 (Spring 1985):22-23. Mentions artists in 1978 inaugural exhibition at Gallery 62: Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, William Braxton, Selma Burke, Aaron Douglas, Palmer Hayden, Jacob Lawrence, Archibald Motley, Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Albert A. Smith, Henry O. Tanner, Charles White, Hale Woodruff. Mentions the many other artists subsequently shown in Gallery 62 exhibitions: Jules Allen, Emma Amos, Toyce Anderson, Aleta Bass, Carole Byard, Adger Cowans, Virginia Cox, Nicholas Davis, Avel DeKnight, Nadine DeLawrence-Maine, Louis Delsarte, James Denmark, Tom Feelings, Manuel Hughes, Bill Hutson, Oliver Johnson, Ben Jones, Richard Leonard, James Little, Fern Logan, Jacqueline Patten, John Pinderhughes, John Rhoden, Faith Ringgold, Arthur Robinson (presumably Leo A. Robinson?), Betye Saar, Sidney Schenck, Coreen Simpson, Beauford Smith, George Smith, John Spaulding, Charles Stewart, Frank Stewart, Sharon Sutton, Jon Thomas, Leon Waller, Joyce Wellman, George Wilson, Maryam Zafar. HAMPTON (VA). Hampton University. The International Review of African American Art Vol. 7, no. 4 (1987). 1987. 64 pp., 45 illus. (18 in color). Articles include: "James Phillips" by A. B. Spellman; "The Dreaming People" by Donna Lauren Gold; "Nola Hatterman: In Celebration of a People" by Dolores Yonker; "Brandywine's Conception of Offset Lithography" by Bernard Young; "Lamidi Fakeye" by Victoria Scott; "Edna Manley: A Legend In Her Own Time" by Mae Tate; Open Letter to Potential Art Investors. Artists include: James Phillips, Robin Ravales, Nola Hatterman, Richard Hunt, Benny Andrews, Willie Birch, Moe Brooker, Percy Martin, David Driskell, Frank Smith, James Dupree, Lamidi Fakeye, Edna Manley, Richmond Barthé, Elizabeth Catlett, Omowale Stewart, Babalu. 4to, wraps. HAMPTON (VA). Hampton University. The International Review of African American Art Vol. 8, no. 2 (1989). 1989. 64 pp., 41 illus. (17 in color). Includes: "The Legacy of The Amistad in Visual Arts" by Clifton H. Johnson; "From Blues to Protest / Assertiveness: The Art of Romare Bearden and John Coltrane" by Robert L. Douglas. Artists include: Romare Bearden, Hale Woodruff, Richmond Barthé, Charles Keck, Herman Kofi Bailey, Aaron Douglas, Charles White, Elizabeth Catlett, Arnold Hurley, Jacob Lawrence, Palmer Hayden, Reginald Gammon, Noah Purifoy, Naomi Caryl, and Cliff Joseph. Photography by P. H. Polk, Bob Thiele and Chuck Stewart. 4to, wraps. HARLEY, RALPH L., JR. Checklist of Afro-American Art and Artists. Kent State University Libraries, 1970. In: Serif 7 (December 1970):3-63. What could have been the solid foundation of future scholarship is unfortunately marred by errors of all kinds and the inclusion of numerous white artists. All Black artists are cross-referenced. HARRIS, MICHAEL D. From Double Consciousness to Double Vision: The Africentric Artist. 1994. In: African Arts Vol. 27, No. 2 (April 1994):44-53, 94-95, color illus., bibliog. Discusses Sargent Johnson, James Phillips, E. H. Sorrells-Adewale. Numerous other artists mentioned in passing: Jeff Donaldson, Palmer Hayden, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Richmond Barthé, Wall of Respect mural, Jacob Lawrence, John Biggers, Africobra, Charles Searles, Barkley Hendricks, Renée Stout. 4to, wraps. HARTFORD (CT). Amistad Foundation, Wadsworth Atheneum. Contemporary Memories: Selections from the Collection of The Amistad Center for Art & Culture. October 28, 2012-April 21, 2013. Group exhibition. Curated by Alona C. Wilson. Included: Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Sheila Pree Bright, Kesha Bruce, Willie Cole, Jeff Donaldson, Emory Douglas, David Driskell, Herbert Gentry, Richard Hunt, Louise E. Jefferson, Jacob Lawrence, Charly Palmer, Addison Scurlock, Hank Willis Thomas, James Vanderzee, Carrie Mae Weems, Deborah Willis, Hale Woodruff, Richard Yarde, and others. HARTFORD (CT). Amistad Foundation, Wadsworth Atheneum. Contemporary Memories: Selections from the Collection of The Amistad Center for Art & Culture. October 28-April 21, 2013. Group exhibition. Curated by Alona C. Wilson. Included: Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Sheila Pree Bright, Kesha Bruce, Willie Cole, Jeff Donaldson, Emory Douglas, David Driskell, Herbert Gentry, Louise E. Jefferson, Jacob Lawrence, Charly Palmer, Addison Scurlock, Shinique Smith, Hank Willis Thomas, Carrie Mae Weems, Deborah Willis, Hale Woodruff, Richard Yarde. HARTFORD (CT). CRT's Craftery Gallery. In Celebration of the Samella S. Lewis Collection. June, 1991. Group exhibition. Seems to have included: Ed Johnetta Miller, Herman Kofi Bailey, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, David Butler, Elizabeth Catlett, Floyd Coleman, Palmer Hayden, Leon Hicks, Margo Humphrey, Clementine Hunter, Jacob Lawrence, Noah Purifoy, Betye Saar, Howard Smith, Mildred Thompson, Mose Tolliver, Ruth Waddy. HEMPSTEAD (NY). Emily Lowe Gallery, Hofstra University. A Blossoming of New Promises: Art in the Spirit of the Harlem Renaissance. February 5-March 14, 1984. 28 pp., 19 b&w illus., 5 full-page color plates (including cover plate), checklist of 55 works by 25 artists, notes, bibliog. Text by Gail Gelburd. Includes (only 5 women artists): Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, Aaron Douglas, Meta Warrick Fuller, Edwin A. Harleston, Palmer Hayden, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Archibald Motley, P.H. Polk, James Porter, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Augusta Savage, William Scott, Albert Alexander Smith, Henry Ossawa Tanner, James Vanderzee, Laura Wheeler Waring, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Hale Woodruff. 4to, stapled wraps. First ed. HEYD, MILLY. Mutual Reflections: Jews and Blacks in American Art. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1999. xiii, 245 pp., 112 b&w illus., list of illus., notes, index. Exploration of the parallel engagement with "self-discovery" for African American and Jewish American artists since the late nineteenth century and the dialogue between Blacks and Jews reflected in the images in the art works themselves. The six chapters include: "African Americans Mirroring Jews," "Jews Mirroring African Americans: The Vision," "Jews Mirroring African Americans: On Lynching," "Working Together: The Civil Rights Movement," "'Hot' versus 'Cool': Involvement and Detachment," and "Postmodernism: Addressing Racial and Ethnic Stereotyping." Artists include: Henry Ossawa Tanner, Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Romare Bearden, John T. Biggers, Frank Bowling, Aaron Douglas, Meta Warrick Fuller, David Hammons, Cliff Joseph, Jacob Lawrence, Howardena Pindell, Adrian Piper, Carrie Mae Weems, Charles White, Pat Ward Williams. 8vo (10 x 7 in.), cloth, d.j. First ed. HILDEBRANDT, LORRAINE and RICHARD S. AIKEN, eds. A Bibliography of Afro-American Print and Non-Print Resources in Libraries of Pierce County, Washington. Tacoma Community College Library, 1969. Artists include: Charles Alston, William Artis, Henry Avery, Henry Bannarn, Edward Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Carter Bazile, Romare Bearden, Rigaud Bénoit, Charles Bible, John Biggers, Wilson Bigaud, Eloise Bishop, Robert Blackburn, Ramos Blanco (Uruguayan), James Bland, Leslie Bolling, Seymour Bottex, Elmer Brown, Fred Brown, Samuel Brown, Selma Burke, Calvin Burnett, E. Simms Campbell, William Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Barbara Chase, Ernest Crichlow, Claude Clark, William Arthur Cooper, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Allan Crite, Harvey Cropper, Charles Dawson, Joseph Delaney, Richard Dempsey, Lillian A. Dorsey, Aaron Douglas, Glanton Dowdell, Robert S. Duncanson, William Edmondson, William Farrow, Elton Fax, Fred Flemister, Allan Freelon, Meta Fuller, Rex Goreleigh [as Gorleigh], Bernard Goss, Eugene Grigsby, John Hardrick, Edwin Harleston, William Harper, Isaac Hathaway, Palmer Hayden, William Hayden, Vertis Hayes, Geoffrey Holder, Al Hollingsworth, Humbert Howard, Richard Hunt, May Jackson, Daniel Larue Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent C. Johnson, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Henry B. Jones, Lois Jones, Ronald Joseph, Paul Keene, Joseph Kersey, Oliver LaGrone, Jacob Lawrence, Clarence Lawson, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Edward Loper, John C. Lutz, Geraldine McCullough, Charles McGee, Lloyd McNeil, William Majors, Sam Middleton, Ronald C. Moody, Scipio Moorhead, Norma Morgan, Archibald Motley, Robert L. Neal, Hayward L. Oubré, Joe Overstreet, Pastor Argudin y Pedroso [as Argudin (Pastor) Pedrosa], Marion Perkins, Harper Phillips, Delilah Pierce, Horace Pippin, Robert Pious, James Porter, Elizabeth Prophet, Florence Purviance, John Robinson, Leo Robinson, Augusta Savage, William Edouard Scott, Georgette Seabrooke, Charles Sebree, Merton Simpson, William H. Simpson, Albert Alexander Smith, Marvin Smith, Thelma Johnson Streat, Henry O. Tanner, Bob Thompson, Dox Thrash [as Thrasher], Laura Waring, James Washington, James Wells [see also Lesesne Wells], Charles White, Jack Whitten, Walter Williams, Ellis Wilson, John Wilson, Hale Woodruff. HOFFMAN, MALVINA. Sculpture Inside and Out. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1939. 330 pp., 276 b&w illus., index. Includes illus. of Richmond Barthé sculpture (p.149). Large 8vo, cloth spine, boards, d.j. HOLMES, OAKLEY N., JR. The Complete Annotated Resource Guide to Black American art: Books, doctoral dissertations, exhibition catalogs, periodicals, films, slides, large prints, speakers, filmstrips, video tapes, Black museums, art galleries, and much more. Spring Valley, NY: Black Artists in America, 1978. iii, 275 pp. A bibliographical reference superceded by Igoe who incorporated all of this information. AAVAD has not yet consulted or copied this information into the database, except where the reference appeared through other sources. Note: numerous misspellings of artists' names. 8vo (23 cm.), glossy printed wraps; text mimeographed. First ed. HOUSTON (TX). Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. African-American Art from the MFAH Collection. February 22-May 9, 2004. Group exhibition curated by Alvia Wardlaw. A selection from the more than 400 works by African American artists in the museum's collection. Included: Henry Ossawa Tanner (Flight Into Egypt), Richmond Barthé, John Biggers, Roy DeCarava, Thornton Dial, Sr., Trenton Doyle Hancock, Earlie Hudnall, Lois Mailou Jones, Bert Long, Jesse Lott, Louise Ozell Martin, David McGee, Tierney Malone, Karyn Olivier, Bert Samples, Carroll Harris Simms, Charles White, and Vicki Meek (The Crying Room: A Memorial to the Ancestors (1992), a room-size installation that presents slave-trade records along with ideographic symbols of the ancestral realm from Nigeria's Yoruba people.) HUGHES, LANGSTON. The Twenties: Harlem and Its Negritude. 1966. In: African Forum [New York] 1, no. 4 (1966):11-20. Mentions Aaron Douglas, Richmond Barthé, and Simms Campbell. HUGHES, LANGSTON and KARL E. DOWNS. Meet the Negro. Los Angeles: Logan Press, 1943. xvi, 179 pp., illus. Sixty brief biographies, with illustrations, of noteworthy African Americans, including writers, musicians, sports figures, political leaders, etc. Visual artists include: Richmond Barthé and E. Simms Campbell. 12mo, red cloth, d.j. First ed. HUNT, DARNELL and ANA-CHRISTINA RAMON, eds. Black Los Angeles: American Dreams and Racial Realities. New York: NYU Press, 2010. 448 pp., 43 illus. (but this is not a photo book), introduction and 16 wide-ranging scholarly texts on Black Los Angeles history and culture, bibliog., index. Includes a chapter on Black Art in Los Angeles by Paul Von Blum (pp. 243-265) which does not add any new information to Von Blum's earlier more extensive publication or the heavily researched exhibitions of 2004-5. Mentions: Richmond Barthé, Ernie Barnes, Roland Charles, Dan Concholar, the Brockman Gallery, Alonzo and Dale Davis, Cecil Ferguson, David Hammons, Varnette Honeywood, Suzanne Jackson, Jacob Lawrence, Samella Lewis, John Outterbridge, William Pajaud, Noah Purifoy, John T. Riddle, Betye Saar, Roderick Sykes, Melvin Van Peebles, Ruth Waddy, Timothy Washington, Daryl Wells, Charles White, Paul R. Williams, Richard Wyatt and a few of the early exhibitions of the California African American Museum, founded in 1978. 8vo (8.6 x 5.9 in.), cloth. HUNTSVILLE (AL). Huntsville Museum of Art. Black Artists / South. April 1-July 29, 1979. 64 pp., illus., bibliog. Dedicated to Aaron Douglas. One of the most substantial exhibitions of Black artists of the '70s, curated by Ralph M. Hudson. 150 artists included: Charles H. Alston, Frederick C. Alston, Emma Amos, William Anderson, Benny Andrews, Emmanuel V. Asihene, William E. Artis, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Herman Beasley, John T. Biggers, Betty Blayton, Shirley Bolton, Arthur L. Britt, Sr., Wendell T. Brooks, Arthur Carraway, George Washington Carver, Yvonne Parks Catchings, Elizabeth Catlett, Don Cincone, Claude Clark, Claude Lockhart Clark, Benny Cole, Tarrence Corbin, G. C. Coxe, Ernest Crichlow, Ernest J. Davidson, Jr., Joseph Delaney, James Denmark, Murry N. Depillars, Hayward R. Dinsmore, Sr., Jeff R. Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, David Driskell, William Edmondson, Marion Epting, Burford E. Evans, Minnie Evans, Elton Fax, Sam Gilliam, J. Eugene Grigsby, Robert Hall, Phillip Hampton, Isaac Hathaway, Wilbur Haynie, Alfred Hinton, Fannie Holman, Earl J. Hooks, John W. Howard, Jean Paul Hubbard, Earnestine Huff, James Huff, Clementine Hunter, A.B. Jackson, Wilmer Jennings, Bill Johnson, Harvey L. Johnson, Joshua Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, William H. Johnson, William E. Johnston, James Edward Jones, Lawrence A. Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Ted Jones, Jack Jordan, James E. Kennedy, Virginia Jackson Kiah, Simmie L. Knox, Lawrence Compton Kolawole, Jean Lacy, Larry Francis Lebby, Hughie Lee-Smith, Samella Lewis, Henri Linton, Oscar Logan, Jesse Lott, Nina Lovelace, Edward McCluney, Jr., Phillip L. Mason, Steve Matthews, Grady Garfield Miles, Minnie Marianne Miles, Lev Mills, Clifford Mitchell, Corinne Mitchell, Sister Gertrude Morgan, Jimmie Mosely, Jr., Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Otto Neals, Trudell Mimms Obey, Hayward L. Oubré, John Outterbridge, Joe Overstreet, Roderick Owens, William Pajaud, Curtis Patterson, John Payne, Clifton Pearson, Marion Perkins, Harper Phillips, Robert Pious, Stephanie Pogue, P.H. Polk, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Roscoe C. Reddix, Robert Reid, Leon Renfro, John W. Rhoden, John T. Riddle, Jr., Gregory D. Ridley, Jr., Haywood Rivers, Arthur Rose, John T. Scott, Thomas Sills, Carroll H. Simms, Jewel Woodard Simon, Merton D. Simpson, Van E. Slater, Maurice Strider, Clarence Talley, James Tanner, Alma Thomas, Elaine F. Thomas, Bob Thompson, Mose Tolliver, Dox Thrash, Leo F. Twiggs, Harry Vital, Larry Walker, James W. Washington, Jr., James Watkins, Clifton G. Webb, James Lesesne Wells, Amos White, Charles White, Jessie Whitehead, Claudia Widdiss, Chester Williams, Walter J. Williams, William T. Williams, Ed Wilson, Ellis Wilson, Everett L. Winrow, Viola Wood, Hale Woodruff, Doris Woodson, Charles A. Young, Kenneth Young, Milton Young. 4to (29 cm.), felt-covered wraps. First ed. IRVING (TX). Irving Arts Center. 200 Years of African American Art: The Arthur Primas Collection. January 30-March 28, 2010. Exhib. cat., illus. Text by Stephen Hardy. Group exhibition of 69 works by 27 African American, 1 African, and several white artists. The exhibition also featured a selection of art and artifacts from the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York. Items included: paintings by Aaron Douglas, Charles Alston, Palmer Hayden, Malvin Gray Johnson and Archibald Motley along with sculptures by Selma Burke, Meta Warrick Fuller and Augusta Savage.Artists include: Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John T. Biggers, Howard L. Bingham, William S. Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Ed Clark, Bryan Collier, Beauford Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Curtis James, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Alvin D. Loving, Richard Mayhew, Kermit Oliver, Howardena Pindell, James A. Porter, Mario Robinson, TAFA, Bob Thompson, Charles White, Hale Woodruff, Richard Wyatt. [Traveled to: Dayton Art Institute, Dayton, OH, November 6, 2010-January 30, 2011; Flint Institute of the Arts, February 15-April 15, 2011; Jule Collins Smith Museum of Art, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, December 10, 2011-March 10, 2012.] Ivoryton (CT). ART Gallery Magazine. The ART Gallery Magazine [Vol. 13, no. 7, April 1970]. 1970. Special Afro-American issue, 2nd Double number. A16, 104 pp., b&w and color illus. Contains interviews with and statements by: John T. Biggers, Bernie Casey, Alvin Hollingsworth, Alma Thomas, Thomas Sills, Also included: Charles Alston, Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, Ralph M. Arnold, William E. Artis, Malcolm Bailey, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, John T. Biggers, Betty Blayton, Selma Burke, Elizabeth Catlett, Dana Chandler, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Emilio Cruz, Avel DeKnight, Aaron Douglas, John E. Dowell, Robert S. Duncanson, Eugene Eda, William Edmondson, Minnie Evans, James Gadson, Reginald Gammon, Sam Gilliam, James Herring, Felrath Hines, Richard Hunt, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Paul Keene, Jacob Lawrence, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Tom Lloyd, William Majors, Richard Mayhew, Archibald J. Motley, Donald McIlvaine, Lloyd McNeill, Jr., Ademola Olugebefola, Joe Overstreet, Horace Pippin, Patrick Henry Reason, John W. Rhoden, Thomas A. Sills, William H. Simpson, Alvin Smith, John Stevens, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Russell Thompson, Eugene Warburg, Charles White, Ellis Wilson, John W. Wilson, Hale A. Woodruff, and many more. 8vo (24 cm.; 9 x 6 in.), wraps. Ivoryton (CT). ART Gallery Magazine. The ART Gallery Magazine: Afro-American issue (Vol. 11, no. 7, April 1968). 1968. Special Afro-American issue. Approx. 100 pp., b&w and color illus. Includes: Alonzo J. Aden, Charles Alston, Emma Amos, Eric Anderson, Benny Andrews, William E. Artis, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Sheman Beck, Ed Bereal, John T. Biggers, Betty Blayton, Sylvester Britton, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Burroughs, William S. Carter, Bernie Casey, Elizabeth Catlett, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Edward Christmas, Claude Clark, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Allan Rohan Crite, Emilio Cruz, Mary Reed Daniel, Charles C. Dawson, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Avel DeKnight, Richard Dempsey, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, David C. Driskell, Robert S. Duncanson, Eugene Eda, William Edmondson, Melvin Edwards, John Farrar, Frederick C. Flemister, Meta Warrick Fuller, Reginald Gammon, Sam Gilliam, Robert Glover, Russell T. Gordon, Bernard Goss, Phillip Hampton, Marvin Harden, Romaine Harris, Eugene Hawkins, Palmer Hayden, Wilbur Haynie, Reginald Helm, James Herring, Leon Hicks, Vivian Hieber (?), Felrath Hines, Alvin Hollingsworth, Humbert Howard, Richard Hunt, A.B. Jackson, Hiram E. Jackson, Daniel LaRue Johnson, Joshua Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Frederic Jones (presumably Frederick D. Jones, Jr.), Lois Mailou Jones, Robert Edmond Jones, Jack Jordan, Sr., Louis Joseph Jordan, Ronald Joseph (as Joseph Ronald), Paul Keene, Joseph Kersey, Herman King, Sidney Kumalo, Jacob Lawrence, Clarence Lawson, Clifford Lee, Hughie Lee-Smith, James Edward Lewis, Jr., Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Tom Lloyd, Alvin Loving, William Majors, Howard Mallory, Jr., David Mann, Richard Mayhew, Anna McCullough, Geraldine McCullough, Charles W. McGee, Lloyd McNeill, Jr., Earl Miller, Norma Morgan, Jimmie Mosely, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Texeira Nash, Frank W. Neal, George E. Neal, Hayward L. Oubre, Jr., James D. Parks, Marion Perkins, Robert S. Pious, Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, Judson Powell, Ramon Price, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Noah Purifoy, Mavis Pusey, Robert D. Reid, John W. Rhoden, Haywood "Bill" Rivers, Henry C. Rollins, Mahler Ryder, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, William E. Scott, Charles Sebree, Jewel Simon, Merton D. Simpson, Van Slater, Carroll Sockwell, John Stevens, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Ralph M. Tate, Lawrence Taylor, John Torres, Jr., Alfred J. Tyler, Ruth G. Waddy, William Walker, Eugene Warburg, Howard N. Watson, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Jack H. White, Jack Whitten, Garrett Whyte, Sam William, Douglas R. Williams, Jose Williams, Todd Williams, Walter H. Williams, Stan Williamson, Ed Wilson, Ellis Wilson, John W. Wilson, Roger Wilson, Hale A. Woodruff, James E. Woods, Roosevelt (Rip) Woods, Charles Yates, Hartwell Yeargans, et al. 8vo (24 cm.; 9 x 6 in.), wraps. JAMES, CURTIA. Richmond Barthé, Richard Hunt. 1994. In: ARTnews (March 1994): 146-147, Exhibition review. JEFFERSON, LOUISE E. Contemporary Art by Afro-Americans. New York: Friendship Press, 1978. Pamphlet with unbound prints, brief biogs. Includes: Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Aaron Douglas, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Louis, Robert Pious, Charles White, Ellis Wilson. 8vo, wraps. JEGEDE, DELE. Encyclopedia of African American Artists (Artists of the American Mosaic). Westport (CT): Greenwood, 2009. 280 pp., b&w illus. and 8 pp. color plates, brief bibliogs. after biographical entries, short general bibliog., index. 66 artists included, some with full entries, some additional artists named in passing. Not remotely encyclopedic. Includes: Charles Alston, Olu Amoda, Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, George Andrews, Herman Kofi Bailey, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Romare Bearden, John T. Biggers, Elmer Simms Campbell, George Washington Carver, Elizabeth Catlett, Sonya Clark, Robert Colescott, Larry Collins, Ed Colston, Achamyele Debela, Roy DeCarava, Gebre Desta, Buddie Jake Dial, Thornton Dial, Sr., Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, David Driskell, Melvin Edwards, Victor Ekpuk, Ben Enwonwu, Tolulope Filani, Sam Gilliam, Palmer Hayden, Alvin C. Hollingsworth, Charnelle Holloway, George Hughes, Richard Hunt, Wadsworth Jarrell, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnson, Lois Mailiou Jones, Ronald Joseph, Byron Kim, Wosene Worke Kosrof, Jacob Lawrence, Edmonia Lewis, Cynthia Lockhart, Frank (Toby) Martin, Richard, Mayhew, Carolyn Mazloomi, Julie Mehretu, Archibald Motley, Wangechi Mutu, Barbara Nesin, Odili Donald Odita, Christopher Okigbo, Bruce Onobrakpeya, Kolade Oshinowo, Gordon Parks, Thomas Phelps, Horace Pippin, Willi Posey (under Jones), Ellen Jean Price, Martin Puryear, Femi Richards, Faith Ringgold, Aminah Brenda Lynn Robinson, Betye Saar, Augusta Savage, John T. Scott, Gerard Sekoto, Thomas Shaw, Lorna Simpson, Edgar Sorrells-Adewale, SPIRAL, Renée Stout, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Fatimah Tuggar, Obiora Udechukwu, James Vanderzee, Ouattara Watts, Carrie Mae Weems, Charles White, William T. Williams, Hale Woodruff. 4to (10.1 x 7.2 in.), boards. JORDAN, DENISE. Harlem Renaissance Artists. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2003. 64 pp., illus. in color and b&w, bibliog., index. General survey designed for juvenile readers, with brief biographies of 11 artists: Richmond Barthé, Aaron Douglas, Palmer Hayden, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Claude Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Augusta Savage, Hale Woodruff, James Vanderzee. 8vo (24 cm.). KATONAH (NY). Katonah Museum of Art. Revisiting American Art: Works from the Collections of Historically Black Colleges and Universities. 1997. 36 pp. exhib. cat., 18 color plates (including covers), checklist of painting and sculpture by 40 African American artists from the 1930s through the 1970s. Curated and text by Debra Spencer; additional essay by Edmund Barry Gaither. Includes Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Elizabeth Catlett, Claude Clark, Eldzier Cortor, Beauford Delaney, David Driskell, Elton Fax, Edwin Harleston, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Sam Middleton, Norma Morgan, Hughie Lee-Smith, Horace Pippin, James Porter, Augusta Savage, Charles Sebree, Alma Thomas, Charles White, Walter Williams, Hale Woodruff and many more. Sq. 8vo (8.5 x 8.5 in.), pictorial wraps. First ed. KIENHOLZ, LYN, ed. (with Barbara Isenberg, Elizabeta Betinski & Corinne Nelson). L.A. Rising: SoCal Artists Before 1980. Los Angeles: California/International Arts Foundation, 2010. 516 pp., over 800 color and 100 b&w images of work by almost 500 artists. Brief text excerpts from critical reviews of exhibitions and writings of the period. Includes: Ron Adams, Herman Kofi Bailey, Richmond Barthé, Phoebe Beasley, Ed Bereal, Gloria Cole Bohanon, David Bradford, Nathaniel Bustion, Bernie Casey, Elizabeth Catlett, Dan Concholar, Houston Conwill, Alonzo Davis, Dale B. Davis, Charles Dickson, Sue Dirkson, Melvin Edwards, Marion Epting, Fredericl Eversley, Joe Goode, Mark Greenfield, Ron Griffin, David Hammons, Marvin Harden, Maren Hassinger, Varnette Honeywood, Bernard Hoyes, Suzanne Jackson, Daniel Larue Johnson, Doyle Lane, Samella Lewis, et al. 4to (31 x 24.7cm.; 12.2 x 9.8 in.), papered boards. KINGSTON (Jamaica). Museums of History and Ethnography and the National Gallery of Jamaica. Materialising Slavery: Art, Artefact, Memory and Identity. September 16-December 31, 2007. Group exhibition. Curated by Wayne Modest and David Boxer. Parts one and two of the exhibition, titled Materializing Slavery and Art, Memory and Identity were mounted at the IOJ and included objects such as implements of torture, logs of the enslaved, ceramics to commemorate Emancipation as well as installation/performance works by leading Jamaican artists. Included: David Boxer, Charles Campbell, Camille Chedda, Laura Facey, Lawrence Graham-Brown, Christopher Irons, Kapo, Edna Manley, David Miller, Ronald C. Moody, Leonard Morris, Petrona Morrison, Michael L. Parchment, Khalfani Ra, Oneika Russell, Oya Toehimba,. A separate exhibition at the Institute of Jamaica Galleries: FRED WILSON: An Account of a Voyage to Jamaica with the Unnatural History of That Place (SEE separate entry.) And lastly The National Gallery will host Iconographic Reconstruction: The Black Image 1900-1980 and Art, Memory and Identity II, parts three and four of the exhibition. Iconographic Reconstruction included: Marvin Bartley, Christopher Clare, Renée Cox, Laura Facey, Petrona Morrison, among others LARKIN, OLIVER W. Art and Life in America. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1949. xviii, 547 pp., illus., bibliog. Includes: Joshua Johnson (as Johnston), Edmonia Lewis, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Horace Pippin, Richmond Barthé, Charles Alston, Leslie Bolling, Romare Bearden, Aaron Douglas, Jacob Lawrence, Archibald Motley, Charles White, Hale Woodruff. [Reprinted in 1957 with supplemental bibliography.] 4to (29 cm.), cloth, d.j. LAUREL (MS). Lauren Rogers Museum of Art. American Masters of the Mississippi Gulf Coast: George Ohr, Dusti Bonge, Walter Anderson, Richmond Barthe. August 8-September 21, 2008. 100 pp. exhib. cat., illus. Text by curator Patti Carr Black. [Traveled to: MSU Dept. of Art Gallery, Starkville, MS, October 2-30, 2008; E.E. Bass Cultural Center, Greenville, MS, November 7-December 19, 2008; Gum Tree Museum of Art, Tupelo, MS, December 30, 2008-February 26, 2009; Mississippi Museum of Art, Jackson, MS, April 11-July 12, 2009; University of Mississippi Museum, Oxford, MS, July 25-August 29 2009; USM Museum of Art, Hattiesburg, MS, September 10-October 15, 2009; Walter Anderson Museum of Art, Ocean Springs, MS, November 6, 2009-January 10, 2010.] Oblong 4to (9.5 x 13 in.), cloth, d.j. LEWIS, SAMELLA. African American Art & Artists. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. 302 pp., 204 illus., many in color, substantial bibliog. A history of African American art from the seventeenth-century to the '90s. Revised and updated from Lewis's original publication Art: African American (1978). [See also entry on expanded edition, 2003]. Foreword by Floyd Coleman. Artists include: the slaves of Thomas Fleet, Boston,.Scipio Moorhead, Neptune Thurston, G.W.Hobbs (white artist), Joshua Johnston, Julien Hudson, Robert M. Douglass, Jr., Patrick Henry Reason, David Bustill Bowser, William Simpson, Robert S. Duncanson, Eugene Warburg, Edward Mitchell Bannister, Grafton Tyler Brown, Nelson A. Primus, Charles Ethan Porter, (Mary) Edmonia Lewis, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Meta Vaux Warrick (Fuller), William Edouard Scott, Laura Wheeler Waring, Aaron Douglas, Hale Woodruff, Palmer Hayden, Archibald Motley, Jr., Malvin Gray Johnson, Ellis Wilson, Sargent Claude Johnson, Augusta Savage, Richmond Barthé, William H. Johnson, James Lesesne Wells, Beauford Delaney, Selma Burke, Lois Mailou Jones, Alma Thomas, James A. Porter, William E. Artis, William Edmondson, Horace Pippin, Clementine Hunter, David Butler, Charles Alston, Norman Lewis, Romare Bearden, Hughie Lee-Smith, Eldzier Cortor, Jacob Lawrence, Charles White, Elizabeth Catlett, John Wilson, John Biggers, Ademola Olugebefola, Herman Kofi Bailey, Raymond Saunders, Lucille Malkia Roberts, David Driskell, Floyd Coleman, Paul Keene, Arthur Carraway, Mikelle Fletcher, Varnette Honeywood, Phoebe Beasley, Benny Andrews, Reginald Gammon, Faith Ringgold, Cliff Joseph, David Bradford, Bertrand Phillips, Manuel Hughes, Phillip Lindsay Mason, Dana Chandler, Malaika Favorite, Bob Thompson, Emilio Cruz, Leslie Price, Irene Clark, Al Hollingsworth, William Pajaud, Richard Mayhew, Bernie Casey, Floyd Newsum, Frank Williams, Louis Delsarte, William Henderson, Daniel LaRue Johnson, Joe Overstreet, Adrienne W. Hoard, Sam Gilliam, Mahler Ryder, Oliver Jackson, Eugene Coles, Vincent Smith, Calvin Jones, Pheoris West, Noah Purifoy, Ed Bereal, Betye Saar, Ron Griffin, John Outterbridge, Marie Johnson, Ibibio Fundi, John Stevens, Juan Logan, John Riddle, Richard Hunt, Mel Edwards, Allie Anderson, Ed Love, Plla Mills, Doyle Foreman, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Artis Lane, John Scott, William Anderson, Martin Puryear, Thomas Miller, Fred Eversley, Larry Urbina, Ben Hazard, Sargent Johnson, Doyle Lane, Willis (Bing) Davis, Curtis Tucker, Yvonne Tucker, Bill Maxwell, Camille Billops, James Tatum, Douglas Phillips, Art Smith, Bob Jefferson, Evangeline Montgomery, Manuel Gomez, Joanna Lee, Allen Fannin, Leo Twiggs, James Tanner, Therman Statom, Marion Sampler, Arthur Monroe, James Lawrence, Marvin Harden, Raymond Lark, Murray DePillars, Donald Coles, Joseph Geran, Ron Adams, Kenneth Falana, Ruth Waddy, Van Slater, Joyce Wellman, William E. Smith, Leon Hicks, Marion Epting, Russell Gordon, Stephanie Pogue, Devoice Berry, Margo Humphrey, Howard Smith, Jeff Donaldson, Lev Mills, Carol Ward, David Hammons, Michael Kelly Williams, Laurie Ourlicht, Gary Bibbs, Houston Conwill, Mildred Howard, Martha Jackson-Jarvis, Alison Saar, Lorenzo Pace. 4to (28 cm.), wraps. 2nd edition (Revised). Reprinted 1994. LEWIS, SAMELLA. Art: African American. Los Angeles: Hancraft, 1990. x (ii), 298 pp., 294 illus. (104 in color), bibliog. Excellent survey of African American art as of the mid-70s, with a discriminating selection of plates. Unfortunately very poor quality reproductions. [All 169 artists are cross-referenced, although not separately listed here.) 4to, wraps. Second revised ed. 1990 Lewis, Samella, ed. Black Art: an international quarterly Vol. 1, No. 1 (Fall 1976). 1976. 68 pp., b&w and color illus. Articles include: African Influences On Black American Art by Floyd Coleman; Armando Solis by Mati Robinson; Collecting Black Art by Bob Holmes; Profile: Elizabeth Catlett (13 illus., 3 photos of artist, and 4 panel color fold-out); Profile: LaMonte Westmoreland; The Emerging Voice of the Black Visual Artists by Murray DePillars; Black American Music: the beginning by Bette Cox; Afro-Brazilian Art by Abdias do Nascimento (translation by Elizabeth Larkin); The Black Presence -- A Theatre of Creative Alternatives by Joan Sandler; African American Folk Tale. Artwork by: Sargent Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Aaron Douglas, Jacob Lawrence, Palmer Hayden, Richmond Barthé, Wadsworth Jarrell, Eldzier Cortor, Armando Solis, John Wilson, Elliot Pinkney, Elizabeth Catlett (including a four- page, color fold-out), Jose Heitor, Abdias do Nascimento, Sebastiao Januario. Festac poster. 4to, wraps. Lewis, Samella, ed. Black Art: an international quarterly Vol. 1, No. 2 (Winter 1976). 1976. 68 pp., b&w and color illus. Articles include: Interview: Howard Smith; Profiles: Lev Mills, Bobby Walls, Joseph Geran, Art Smith; Yinka Adeyemi; The Golden State Mutual Afro-American Art Collection; Art Smith, Jeweler; Art education overview (by Eugene Grigsby); Book review of Black Photographer's Annual. Power of Place: Public Art Commemorates An African-American Midwife; Irmandade de Boa Morte. Artwork by: Howard Smith, William Smith, John Biggers, Ablade, Daniel Johnson, Romare Bearden, Herbert Bennet, Osira Olatunde, John Riddle, Charles White, Henry O. Tanner, Hughie Lee-Smith, William Pajaud, Elizabeth Catlett, Jacob Lawrence, Aaron Douglas, Richmond Barthé, Lev Mills, Bobby Walls, Joseph Geran, Yinka Adeyemi, Walker Foster. Augusta Savage, James Porter, Paul Keene, Ernest Crichlow. 4to, wraps. LEWISBURG (PA). Center Gallery, Bucknell University. Since the Harlem Renaissance: 50 Years of Afro-American Art. April 13-June 6, 1984. 124 pp. exhib. cat., 96 illus. (19 in color), exhib. checklist of 133 works by 77 artists, bibliog. Text includes interviews with 12 of the artists: Benny Andrews, Romare Bearden, David Driskell, Sam Gilliam, Lois Mailou Jones, James Little, Al Loving, Howardena Pindell, Faith Ringgold, Frank E. Smith, Jack Whitten, William T. Williams. Intro. mentions the following artist interviews which were not used but which are on deposit with the Hatch-Billops Collection: Jeff Donaldson, Mel Edwards, Bill Hutson, Richard Mayhew, Joe Overstreet. Excellent survey with many dozens of additional artists mentioned in passing. [Traveled to: SUNY, Old Westbury, November 1-December 9; Munson-Williams- Proctor Institute, Utica , NY, January 11-March 3, 1985; University of Maryland, College Park, MD, March 27-May 3; Museum of Art, Pennsylvania State University, July 19-September 1, 1985; The Chrysler Museum, Norfolk, VA, September 22-November 1, 1985.] 4to (31 cm.; 12 x 9 in.), wraps. First ed. Life Magazine editors. Negro Artists: Their Works Win Top U.S. Honors. 1946. In: Life Magazine Vol. 21, no. 4 (July 22, 1946):62-65; color plate for each painter, b&w plates for sculptors. Important illustrated national coverage of African American artists, including: Marion Perkins ("Moses"), William Artis ("Draped Head"), Sargent Johnson ("Chester"), Richmond Barthé ("Head"), Eloise Bishop ("Head of a Boy"), Eldzier Cortor ("Southern Gate"), Jacob Lawrence ("Interior"), Horace Pippin ("John Brown Going to His Hanging"), Romare Bearden ("Factory Workers"), William H. Johnson ("Mount Calvary"), John Wilson ("Mother and Child") and Palmer Hayden ("Baptizing Day"). Tall 4to, wraps. LITTLE ROCK (AR). Hearne Fine Art. The Power of Art: Generational Wealth. September, 2012. Group exhibition. Included: Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé, John T. Biggers, Elizabeth Catlett, Robert S. Duncanson, LaToya Hobbs, Clementine Hunter, Dean Mitchell, Charles Ethan Porter, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Ernest C. Withers. LOCKE, ALAIN. Advance on the Art Front. 1939. In: Opportunity 17 (May 1939):132-36. Includes 29 artists. [Reprinted in In The Negro in Music and Art, ed.Lindsay Patterson. New York: Publishers Co.:239-245.] William Blackburn [presumably Robert Blackburn]. 4to (11 x 8 in.), wraps. LOCKE, ALAIN. Negro Art: Past and Present. Washington, DC: Associates in Negro Folk Education (Bronze Booklet No. 3), 1936. (vi) 122 pp., no illustrations, bibliography for each chapter. Covers the history of images of African Americans and art by African Americans through contemporary artists of the mid-1930s; the final chapter is on African art. Highly important early book on African American art by one of its most eminent cultural spokespersons. Includes: Charles Alston, William E. Artis, Henry Bannarn, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Samual Blount, Richard Lonsdale Brown, Samuel J. Brown, William A. Cooper, Samuel Countee, Allan Rohan Crite, William Dawson, Beauford Delaney, Gamaliel Derrick, Arthur Diggs, Aaron Douglas, Robert S. Duncanson, William Farrow, Elton Fax, Allan Freelon, Meta Vaux Fuller, Rex Goreleigh, John Hardrick, William A. Harper, Palmer Hayden, Vertis C. Hayes, Hanry Hudson, May Howard Jackson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Henry Bozeman Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Charles Keene, Edmonia Lewis, Lenwood Morris, Archibald Motley, Sara Murrell, Bruce Nugent, Robert Pious, James A. Porter, Georgette Seabrooke (Powell), Nancy E. Prophet, Dan Terry Reid, (Oliver) Richard Reid, Earle Richardson, Winfred Russell, Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Albert A. Smith, Henry O. Tanner, John Urquhart, Grayson Walker, Eugene Warburg, Laura Wheeler Waring, James Lesesne Wells, Hale Woodruff. [Also mentions an artist named Otto Farrill for whom there is no independent listing; the Serif and Cederholm listings are derived from Locke.] [Reprinteed by Arno Press 8vo, wraps. First ed. LOCKE, ALAIN. The American Negro as Artist. New York. American Federation of Arts, 1931. In: The American Magazine of Art Vol. 23, No. 3 (September 1931):210-220. This issue contains the groundbreaking illustrated article by Alain Locke, the leading art critic of the Harlem Renaissance. 12 b&w illustrations of work by Edwin A. Harleston, Lillian Dorsey, Malvin Gray Johnson, Archibald T. Motley, William H. Johnson, Hale Woodruff, James Lesesne Wells, Laura Wheeler Waring, Sargent Johnson, Richmond Barthé. Also includes mention of Edward M. Bannister, Edmonia Lewis, Robert Duncanson, William Farrow, Meta Warrick Fuller, Palmer Hayden, Edwin A. Harleston, May Jackson, William Edouard Scott, Albert A. Smith, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Augusta Savage, Henry Ossawa Tanner. This issue also includes an article by Walter R. Agard on the paintings of Africa by Clarence Carter and Paul B. Travis. [Locke's essay is reprinted in: The Critical Temper of Alain Locke. A Selection of His Essays on Art and Culture, edited by Jeffrey C. Stuart. [New York: Garland]:171-79.] 8vo, wraps. LOCKE, ALAIN. The Negro in Art. 1931. In: Bulletin of the Association of American Colleges 18 (November 1931):359-64. Covers all of the arts and therefore mentions only a handful of visual artists: Richmond Barthé, Meta Warrick Fuller, Edwin Harleston, May Jackson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Laura Waring, James L. Wells, Hale Woodruff. LOCKE, ALAIN. The Negro's Contribution to American Culture. 1932. In: Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work (May 15-21, 1932):315-22. Artists mentioned include: Edward Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Aaron Douglas, Robert Duncanson [as James], Meta Warrick Fuller, May Jackson, William H. Johnson, Edmonia Lewis, Archibald Motley, William Scott, Henry O. Tanner, Laura Waring, Hale Woodruff, James Wells. LOCKE, ALAIN, ed. The Negro in Art: A Pictorial Record of The Negro Artist and of The Negro Theme In Art. Washington, DC: Associates in Negro Folk education, 1940. 224 pp., leaf of plates, illus. (1 in color), selected bibliography. Reprinted by Hacker Books, 1968, 1968, 1971, 1979 (0878170138). 4to (31 cm.), green gilt-lettered cloth. First printing, December 1940. LONDON (UK). Hayward Gallery and Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. 180 pp. exhib. cat., 153 color plates, numerous b&w illus., checklist of over 130 works. Foreword by David A. Bailey; texts by Richard J. Powell, Simon Callow, Andrea D. Barnwell, Jeffrey C. Stewart, Paul Gilroy, Martina Attille, Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Artists include: Charles Alston, Aaron Douglas, Richmond Barthé, Meta Vaux Fuller, Palmer Hayden, William H. Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Isaac Julien, Jacob Lawrence, Archibald Motley, Richard S. Roberts, Augusta Savage, James VanDerZee, and white artist Winold Reiss. 4to, cloth, d.j. First hardcover ed. LOS ANGELES (CA). Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Plaza. Artists' Salute to Black History Month. February 4-12, 1993. Group exhibition of 125 artists from 24 states. A special sub-exhibition entitled Legends curated by Samella Lewis included: Richmond Barthe, John T. Biggers, Elizabeth Catlett, Jacob Lawrence. Main exhibition curated by Barbara Wesson. Included: Ernie Barnes, Charles Bibbs, Larry Poncho Brown, Charles Haywood, Varnette Honeywood, Noah Purifoy, Synthia Saint James, Marian Williams. [Review: Erin J. Aubry, "Creative Energy : Major African-American Art Show Reaches New Heights," Los Angeles Times, January 31, 1993.] LOS ANGELES (CA). California African American Museum. In the Hands of African American Collectors: The Personal Treasures of Bernard and Shirley Kinsey. September 28, 2006-March 11, 2007. 112 pp. exhib. cat., full-page color illus., biogs. of most artists. Curated by Evelyn Carter, Jill Moniz and Christopher D. Jimenez y West; texts by Gary Nash and Rita Roberts; reflections as collectors, Bernard and Shirley Kinsey. Group exhibition of work collected by the Kinseys in Los Angeles for the past 35 years. Includes some 90 paintings, sculptures, prints, books, documents, manuscripts and vintage photographs. Artists include: Ron Adams, Tina Allen, Charles Alston, Edward M. Bannister, Ernie Barnes, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Phoebe Beasley, John Biggers, Bob Blackburn, Grafton Tyler Brown, Margaret Burroughs, Elizabeth Catlett, Claude Clark, Allan Rohan Crite, Bill Dallas, Robert S. Duncanson, Samuel L. Dunson Jr., Ed Dwight, Sam Gilliam, Jonathan Green, Palmer Hayden, Richard Hunt, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Artis Lane, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Lionel Lofton, Richard Mayhew, William Pajaud, James Porter, Edward Pratt, Sue Jane Mitchell Smock, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Matthew Thomas, William Tolliver, James Lesesne Wells. [Traveled to: South Side Community Art Center, Chicago, July 13, 2007-March 2, 2008; Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach, FL, May 1-July 20, 2008.] 4to (28 cm.), wraps. LOS ANGELES (CA). California African American Museum. Los Angeles Collects: Works by over Thirty Artists from Fifteen Private Collections. October 9-December 27, 1987. 36 pp. exhib. cat., b&w illus., bibliog., biogs., notes, exhib. checklist. Text by Paulette S. Parker. Curated by Alitash Kebede. Included: Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Pauline Powell Burns, Elizabeth Catlett, Charles Dickson, Frederick Eversley, Sam Gilliam, David Hammons, Maren Hassinger, Varnette Honeywood, Suzanne Jackson, Daniel Larue Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, William Pajaud, Howardena Pindell, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, Howard Smith, Thurman Statom, Henry O. Tanner, Alma Thomas, Ruth Waddy, Charles White, Stanley Wilson, Beulah Woodard, Richard Yarde. [Review: Suzanne Muchnic, Los Angeles Times, November 7, 1987.) Sq. 8vo (9.75 x 9.75 in.), wraps. LOS ANGELES (CA). California African American Museum. Permanent Collection: New Acquistions. March 18-July 29, 1990. Group exhibition of newly acquired work. Includes: Bob Thompson [Untitled (Tree Lift) 1962); Robert H. Colescott (A Stroll Through the Neighborhood, 1980, as well as the watercolor diptych study for the painting]; John Wilson [Standing Woman, 1980); John T. Riddle [9 assemblage in ammunition box pieces from the 1973 Spirit versus Technology Series); Martin Puryear (She, 1979 and Her, 1979); Doyle Lane [9 untitled Vases, early to mid 1960s); Howardena Pindell [Festival, 1985); Frederick James Brown (After the Hunt, 1985); Ed Clark (Circular 2, 1987); Benny Andrews (Cherries, 1982); Romare Bearden (Mecklenburg Morning & Evening Sunrise, 1986, Prevalence of Ritual #1-5, 1974, In the Garden, 1979; Quilting Time, 1979); Marie E. Johnson Calloway (Hope Street, Church Mothers, 1984); Robert S. Duncanson (Italianate Landscape, 1855); Herbert Gentry (Carnival, 1985); David Hammons (The Door (Admissions Office), 1969, Skillets in the Closet, 1988); Noah Purifoy (The Sound of One Hand Clapping, 1988 shadow box assemblage, and Watts Riot, 1966); Betye Saar (Nine Mojo Secrets, 1971, Sambo's Banjo, 1971-2 and Floating Figure with Seven Spades, 1977); Carroll H. Simms (He's Got the Whole World in His Hands, 1984); Timothy Washington (Energy, 1970); John Outterbridge (Lift Every Voice and California Crosswalk (both from Ethnic Heritage Series), 1984 and 1979 respectively); Herman Kofi Bailey, Jr. (Homework, 1973); Edward M. Bannister (10 landscape pencil drawings); Maren Hassinger (Leaning, 1971 and Interlock, 1984); Richmond Barthé (Mary McLeod Bethune, 1940s); Jacob Lawrence (The Capture (Toussaint L'Ouverture series), 1987, Confrontation on the Bridge, 1975); Clementine Hunter (Pecan Pickers); and three paintings by Francois Turenne des Pres. LOS ANGELES (CA). California African American Museum. Place of Validation: Art and Progression. September 29, 2011-April 1, 2012. Group exhibition of work by over 84 artists. Funded as part of the Getty's Pacific Standard Time exhibitions, but without funding for a catalogue. LOS ANGELES (CA). California African American Museum. The Legacy of the Golden State Life Insurance Company: More Than a Business. April 4-July 31, 2012. Group exhibition. A belated celebration of the collection (most of which was recently sold at Swann Auction Galleries). The building of the main office, commissioned from Paul Williams is still standing on the corner of Western and Adams Blvds. Numerous works loaned for the exhibition included: Charles Alston, Hale Woodruff, Richmond Barthé, Elizabeth Catlett, Harvey L. Johnson, P'lla Mills, William Pajaud, John T. Riddle, Joseph SIms, et al. LOS ANGELES (CA). Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Co. Selected Pieces from the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Co. Afro-American Art Collection. Los Angeles: 1969. Unpag. exhib. cat., 10 illus. including work by: Hughie Lee-Smith, Daniel Larue Johnson, Richard Hunt. Ron Adams, Charles White, Richmond Barthé, Beulah Woodard, P'lla Mills, Rose Green, Jack Jordan. 13 artist biogs. of Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, William Carter, Alice Gafford, Rose Green, Richard Hunt, Daniel L. Johnson, Jack Jordan, Hughie Lee-Smith, P'lla Mills, Charles White, Beulah Woodard, Hale Woodruff. [The revised edition of 1972 includes somewhat different illustrations and biographies, including Herman Kofi Bailey, John Biggers, Betye Saar, Henry Ossawa Tanner.] LOS ANGELES (CA). Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company. Golden State Mutual Negro Art Collection. Los Angeles: 1965. Pocket folder containing: a 15 pp. stapled booklet entitled "Historical Murals" on the Hale Woodruff and Charles Alston murals and Richmond Barthé's bust of William Nickerson, Jr. (the company founder) and 27 loose leaves, each with a b&w illustration of other works in the collection. Artists included: William Carter, Alice Gafford (as Gatford), Daniel Johnson, Jack Jordan, Hughie Lee-Smith, P'lla Mills, Beulah Woodard, as well as two pieces of African art: an Ivory coast bronze and a carved wood Nigerian panel (both by unidentified artists.) Published in celebration of Golden State Mutual's 40th anniversary. Oblong 12mo., stapled wraps and 27 leaves, contained in gray paper folder lettered in brown, printed on both sides. LOS ANGELES (CA). J. Paul Getty Museum. Pacific Standard Time: Crosscurrents in LA Painting and Sculpture, 1945-1970. 2011. 352 pp., illus. Texts by Andrew Perchuk, Katherine Taft, Lucy Bradnock, Rani Singh, Ken D. Allen, Lisa Turvey, Donna Conwell, Glenn Phillips, Jane McFadden, et al. An extraordinary near-exclusion of African American artists from a purportedly comprehensive account of the development of art in Los Angeles during a critical 25 year period. Most of the artists listed here are included in one of four sentences: Ed Bereal, Dan Concholar, Alonzo and Dale Davis, Emory Douglas, Melvin Edwards, David Hammons, Suzanne Jackson, Ulysses Jenkins, Hughie Lee-Smith, Samella Lewis, Senga Nengudi, John Outterbridge, William Pajaud, Noah Purifoy, Betye Saar, Ruth Waddy, Timothy Washington, Charles White. Information on galleries and collections (including the Golden State Mutual Collection (51 lines, no illus. of the collection or important murals by Hale Woodruff.) 4to (11.7 x 9.2 in.), boards. LOS ANGELES (CA). Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA). The Figure in American Sculpture: A Question of Modernity. February 26-April 30, 1995. Exhib. cat., checklist, biogs. of all artists. Texts by Ilene Susan Fort, Mary L. Lenihan, Marlene Park, Susan Rather, Roberta K. Tarbell. Artists include: William Artis, Richmond Barthé, Leslie Bolling, Selma Burke, William Edmondson, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, May Howard Jackson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Samella Lewis, James Porter, Elizabeth Prophet, Augusta Savage, Henry Ossawa Tanner. [Exhibition traveled to Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts, AL, June 22-Sept. 10; Wichita Art Museum, KS, Oct. 22, 1995-Jan. 7, 1996; National Academy of Design, Feb. 15-May 5, 1996.] LUBBOCK (TX). Museum of Texas Tech University. Living With Art: Modern & Contemporary African American Art from collection of Alitash Kebede. January 1-March 31, 2003. Traveling exhibition of 75 works (painting, drawing, prints, sculpture) by 38 artists. Includes: Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Skunder Boghossian, David Butler, Nanette Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Ed Clark, Emilio Cruz, Melvin Edwards, Herbert Gentry, Sam Gilliam, Maren Hassinger, Palmer Hayden, Richard Hunt, Bill Hutson, Lois Mailou Jones, Gwendolyn Knight, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Samella Lewis, James Little, Al Loving, Richard Mayhew, Tyrone Mitchell, Mary Lovelace O'Neal, Betye Saar, Alison Saar, Lezley Saar, Eve Sandler, Charles Searles, William Smith, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, Phyllis Thompson, Charles White, Richard Wyatt, Richard Yarde. [Traveled to: Center For Contemporary Art, Univ. of Colorado, Colorado Springs, CO, October 1-December 31, 2003; Pritchard Art Gallery, Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID, January 23-February 29, 2004; Smith Robertson Cultural Center, Jackson, MS, July 14-October 31, 2004; Stark University Ctr. Galleries, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX, January 19-March 19, 2006; Peninsula Fine Arts Center, Newport News, VA, June 3-August 27, 2006; Shaw Center for the Arts, LSU, Baton Rouge, LA, January 26-April 27, 2007; California African American Museum, Los Angeles, CA, May 31-September 2, 2007; Bermuda National Gallery of Art, October 8, 2007-January 4, 2008, and other venues.] 4to, wraps. MINNEAPOLIS (MN). University Art Museum, University of Minnesota. A Stronger Soul Within a Finer Frame: Portraying African Americans in the Black Renaissance. 1990. 64 pp. exhib. cat., 21 b&w illus., color cover illus., exhib. checklist. Multi-disciplinary exhibition rather randomly covering literature, painting, graphic arts, film and music. Many works were exhibited in reproduction only. Text by John S. Wright and Tracy E. Smith. Includes: James Latimer Allen, Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, C.M. Battey, Aaron Douglas, E. Simms Campbell, Palmer Hayden, Lois Mailou Jones, Archibald Motley, Jr., Augusta Savage, Addison Scurlock, Albert A. Smith, Henry Ossawa Tanner, James Vanderzee, Mexican artist Miguel Covarrubias, and many white artists. Also includes a section on the Black Arts movement of the Sixties with images of work by Alison Saar and Gordon Parks. 4to (28 cm), pictorial stapled wraps. First ed. MONTCLAIR (NJ). Montclair Art Museum. Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture by Negro Artists. February 9-17, 1946. Group exhibition of work loaned by the Harmon Foundation. Included: Frank J. Dillon, Malvin G. Johnson, Dan Terry Reid, Albert A. Smith, Sargent Johnson, Richmond Barthé. [Montclair Art Museum Bulletin (February 1946):2-3.] MOSS, CARLTON [Dir. and prod.]. Portraits in Black: Paul Lawrence Dunbar; Two Centuries of Black American Art; Gift of the Black Folk (Video). Pyramid Film & Video, 1987. Three separate films on one video. 1. Paul Laurence Dunbar (1978). Produced and directed by William Hurtz and Carlton Moss. Readings and dramatizations from the poetry and other writings of Paul Laurence Dunbar. 2. Two Centuries of Black American Art (1976). Presents many of the works shown in the exhibition Two centuries of Black American art, with brief biographical sketches of some of the artists included [segments by artists Aaron Douglas, Selma Burke, Romare Bearden, Alma Thomas, John Rhoden, Lois M. Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Richmond Barthé and Charles White.] 3. Portrays the lives and accomplishments of Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman and Denmark Vesey in their fight against slavery. VHS-NTSC: color; sd; 60 min. Previously released individually as 16 mm. motion pictures, 1976-1978. MOTLEY, WILLARD F. Negro Art in Chicago. 1940. In: Opportunity, Journal of Negro Life 18, no. 1 (January 1940): 19 22, 28 31. "There is a small group of young Negro artists in Chicago that will be heard from one of these days...At present they are struggling in garage and top floor tenement studios...They paint for the love of it. There is much talent in the group." [Reprinted in Lindsay Patterson, ed., The Negro in Music and Art, 1968.] 4to (11 x 8 in.), wraps. MULLIN, BILL. Popular Fronts: Chicago and African-American Cultural Politics, 1935-46. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999. 256 pp., illus., bibliog., notes, index. Extensive discussion of the cultural importance of the South Side Art Center. Mentions William E. Smith, Raymond Steth, Dox Thrash, Henry A. Avery, Richmond Barthé, Margaret Burroughs, John Carlis, Jr., William S. Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Charles Davis, Walter Ellison, William McKnight Farrow, Ramon Gabriel, Rex Goreleigh, Bernard Goss, Joseph Kersey, Jacob Lawrence, Clarence Lawson, Archibald Motley, Jr., George Neal, Gordon Parks, Marion Perkins, David Ross, William E. Scott, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Earl Walker, Charles White, Lorraine Williams, Vernon Winslow. 8vo, cloth. First ed. NADELL, MARTHA JANE. Enter the New Negroes: Images of Race in American Culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004. 214 pp., 48 illus. Attention paid to the work of Aaron Douglas, Jacob Lawrence, Richard Bruce Nugent; passing mention of Richmond Barthé and Kara Walker. 8vo (24 x 16 cm.; 9.3 x 6.1 in.), cloth, d.j. NASHVILLE (TN). Fisk University Art Gallery. The Afro-American Collection, Fisk University. 1976. 64 pp. exhib. cat., illus., brief biogs., checklist of works by 63 artists in the Fisk University Collection as of 1976. Pref. by Robert L. Hall; text by David C. Driskell. Artists include: Skunder Boghossian, Ellen Bond, Jacqueline Bontemps, Michael Borders, Elizabeth Catlett, Claude Clark, Samuel Countee, Ralph Arnold, William Artis, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, G. Caliman Coxe, Allan Crite, Dante (Donald Graham), Jeff Donaldson, Lilian Dorsey, Aaron Douglas, John Dowell, David Driskell, Elton Fax, Wilhelmina Godfrey [as Godfrey Wilhelmina], Clementine Hunter, Louise Jefferson, Adrienne Jenkins, Wilmer Jennings, Palmer Hayden, Earl J. Hooks, Manuel Hughes, Ben Jones, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Ben Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Sam Middleton, James Miles, Keith Morrison, Roderick Owens, James Phillips, Stephanie Pogue, James Porter, Martin Puryear, Gregory Ridley, Leo Robinson, William E. Scott, John Scott, Albert A. Smith, Vincent Smith, David Stephens, Nelson Stevens, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Bill Traylor, Alma Thomas, Mildred Thompson, James Wells, Charles White, Benjamin Wigfall, Walter Williams, William T. Williams, Ellis Wilson, Viola Wood, Hale Woodruff and Charles Young. 4to (28 cm.), wraps. NASHVILLE (TN). Fisk University, Department of Art. Amistad II: Afro-American Art. 1975. 92 pp. exhib. cat., 74 b&w illus., checklist of 79 works by 53 African American artists. Text by David C. Driskell, self-interview by Allan M. Gordon, text on Amistad incident by Grant Spradling. Artists include: Benny Andrews, William Artis, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Betty Blayton, Michael Borders, Elizabeth Catlett, Jacob Lawrence, Henry O. Tanner, Claude Clark, Sr., Claude Lockhart Clark, Eldzier Cortor, Allan Rohan Crite, Bing Davis, Philip Randolph Dotson, Aaron Douglas, John Dowell, David Driskell, William Edmondson, Palmer Hayden, Earl Hooks, Richard Hunt, Clementine Hunter, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnson, Lawrence Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Ted Jones, David McDonald, Sam Middleton, Keith Morrison, Archibald Motley, James Porter, Gregory Ridley, Raymond Saunders, Charles Sebree, Albert Alexander Smith, Vincent D. Smith, Bill Taylor, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Walter Williams, William T. Williams, Ellis Wilson, and others. 4to (29 cm.), wraps. First ed. Negro History Bulletin. The Negro in Art from Africa to America. 1939. In: Negro History Bulletin 2 (March 1939). General survey of black artists. NEW DELHI [India]. United Asia. United Asia: International Magazine of Asian Affairs Vol. V, no. 3 (June 1953). 1953. xvi, 76 pp. Special issue focus: Symposium on the American Negro. Contributors include Charles S Johnson, Cedric Dover, Sterling Brown, John Hope Franklin (From Slavery to Freedom), W E B Du Bois, Hugh and Mabel Smythe, H. Lewis (The Negro Scene - Facts and Figures), James Ivy (The Character of Negro Opinion); Langston Hughes (Poems -- Old and New and Twelve Favourite Poems), Alain Locke (The Negro in the Arts), Mozell Hill (Modern Negro Literature); George V. Allen; a basic bibliography of writings by black authors; visual artists surveyed (7 b&w illus.) include: John Rhoden, Richmond Barthé, Elizabeth Catlett, Robert Blackburn, Aaron Douglas, Allan Crite, and Edwin A Harleston. 4to, wraps. NEW ORLEANS (LA). Amistad Research Center and the New Orleans Museum of Art. Beyond the Blues: Reflections of Africa America in the Fine Arts Collection of the Amistad Research Center. April 11-July 11, 2010. 188 pp., 316 illus. (302 in color). This publication serves both as a catalogue of the exhibition and also as documentation of the majority of works in the Amistad's collection. Foreword by David C. Driskell; texts by curator Margaret Rose Vendryes, Lowery Stokes Sims, Michael D. Harris, and Renee Ater. See exhibition checklist: http://amistadresearchcenter.org/beyond_the_blues/works.html. 4to, boards. Ed. of 1000. NEW ORLEANS (LA). Stella Jones Gallery. Ebony soliloquy: a five year retrospective (1996-2001). 2001. 47 pp. exhib. cat., illus. (mostly color.) Preface by Samella Lewis. Group exhibition. Included: Richard Barthé, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Herbert Gentry, Loïs Mailou Jones, Phoebe Beasley, Yvonne Edwards-Tucker, Artis Lane, Evangeline "EJ" Montgomery, Mary Lovelace O'Neal, Ann Tanksley, Louis Delsarte, Malaika Favorite, Randall Henry, Dennis Paul Williams, Tayo Adenaike, El Anatsui, Antonio Carreño, LeRoy Clarke, Edouard Duval-Carrié, Wosene Kosrof, Margaret Burroughs, Elizabeth Catlett, Claude Clark, Ernest Crichlow, Reginald Gammon, Richard Hunt, Samella Lewis, Richard Mayhew, William "Bill" Pajaud, Jr., Gordon Parks, Sr., Ron Adams, Benny Andrews, Allan Rohan Crite, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Francisco Mora, James Amos Porter, Vincent Smith. 4to (28 cm.), wraps. NEW YORK (NY).. Sculptor's Guild Annual. 1944. Group exhibition. Included: Richmond Barthé. [Passing mention in ARTnews 43 (May 15, 1944): 19-23.] NEW YORK (NY).. The New York Public Library African American Desk Reference. Wiley, 1999. Includes a short and dated list of the usual 110+ artists, with a considerable New York bias, and a random handful of Haitian artists, reflecting the collection at the Schomburg: architect Julian Francis Abele. Josephine Baker, Edward M. Bannister, Amiri Baraka, Richmond Barthé, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Romare Bearden, John T. Biggers, Camille Billops, Bob Blackburn, Betty Blayton, Frank Bowling, Grafton Tyler Brown, Selma Burke, Margaret Burroughs, David Butler, Elizabeth Catlett, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Edward Clark, Robert Colescott, Ernest Crichlow, Emilio Cruz, William Dawson, Roy DeCarava, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Aaron Douglas, John Dowell, Robert S. Duncanson, John Dunkley, William Edmondson, Melvin Edwards, Minnie Evans, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, Sam Gilliam, Henry Gudgell, David Hammons, James Hampton, William A. Harper, Bessie Harvey, Isaac Hathaway, Albert Huie, Eugene Hyde, Jean-Baptiste Jean, Florian Jenkins, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Lois Mailou Jones, Lou Jones, Napoleon Jones-Henderson, Ronald Joseph, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Georges Liautaud, Seresier Louisjuste, Richard Mayhew, Jean Metellus, Oscar Micheaux, David Miller, Scipio Moorhead, Archibald J. Motley, Abdias do Nascimento, Philomé Obin, Joe Overstreet, Gordon Parks, David Philpot, Elijah Pierce, Howardena Pindell, Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, David Pottinger, Harriet Powers, Martin Puryear, Gregory D. Ridley, Faith Ringgold, Sultan Rogers, Leon Rucker, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, Augusta Savage, William Edouard Scott, Senegalese filmmaker Ousmane Sembene, Ntozake Shange, Philip Simmons, Lorna Simpson, Moneta J. Sleet, Vincent D. Smith, Micius Stéphane, Renée Stout, SUN RA, Alma Thomas, Neptune Thurston, Mose Tolliver (as Moses), Bill Traylor, Gerard Valcin, James Vanderzee, Melvin Van Peebles. Derek Walcott, Kara Walker, Eugene Warburg, Laura Wheeler Waring, James W. Washington, Barrington Watson, Carrie Mae Weems, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Jack Whitten, Lester Willis, William T. Williams, John Wilson, Hale Woodruff, Richard Yarde. 8vo (9.1 x 7.5 in.), cloth, d.j. NEW YORK (NY). Bernice Steinbaum Gallery. American Resources: Selected Works of African American Artists. August 26-September 24, 1989. Unpag. (94 pp.) exhib. cat., 91 b&w illus., checklist. A catalogue of three exhibitions held June 18-August 18 in Nashville which were subsequently shown together at Bernice Steinbaum Gallery. Includes: 14 older masterworks, 57 works by 47 contemporary avant garde artists, and 34 works by outsider artists. Curated and text by Bernice Steinbaum. Excellent wide-ranging selection with many women artists represented. Includes: Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé [as Richard], Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Camille Billops, Bob Blackburn, Frederick J. Brown, Vivian Browne, Beverly Buchanan, David Butler, Carole Byard, Archie Byron, Kimberly Camp, Elizabeth Catlett, Catti, Albert Chong, C'love, Robert Colescott, Houston Conwill, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Thornton Dial (Sr.), Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, Sam Doyle, David Driskell, William Edmondson, Minnie Evans, Sam Gilliam, Ralph Griffin, Bessie Harvey, Maren Hassinger, Gerald Hawkes, Janet Henry, Lonnie Holley (as Holly), Margo Humphrey, Richard Hunt, Noah Jemisin, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Ronald Joseph, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Joe Light, Ronald Lockett, Wini McQueen (as Winnie), J.B. Murry, Mary Lovelace O'Neal, Joe Overstreet, Howardena Pindell, Adrian Piper, Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, Martin Puryear, John Rhoden, John Riddle, Faith Ringgold, Royal Robertson, Juanita Rogers, Nellie Mae Rowe, Alison Saar, Raymond Saunders, Joyce Scott, Elizabeth Talford Scott, William E. Scott, Clarissa Sligh, Albert A. Smith (as Albert H. Smith), Mary T. Smith, Henry Speller, Jimmie Lee Sudduth, Alma Thomas, James (Son) Thomas, Bob Thompson (as Bobby), Mose Tolliver, Bill Traylor, Felix Vergous, Bisa Washington, Grace Y. Williams, Philemona Williamson, Hale Woodruff, Purvis Young. Narrow 8vo (23 cm.), grey paper wraps, lettered in black. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). City College, CUNY. The Evolution of Afro-American Artists; 1800-1950. 1967. 70 pp., 47 full-page b&w illus., biogs. and checklist of works exhibited. Co-curated by Romare Bearden and Carroll Greene, Jr. Includes: 6 works of African heritage art and 54 artists: Joshua Johnson (as Johnston), Edward M. Bannister, Edmonia Lewis, Robert S. Duncanson, William Simpson, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Meta Warrick Fuller, Aaron Douglas, Richmond Barthé, Palmer Hayden, Hale Woodruff, Archibald Motley, Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Albert Smith, James A. Porter, Allan Rohan Crite, Malvin Gray Johnson, William H. Johnson, O. Richard Reid, Laura Waring, William E. Braxton, James L. Wells, Edwin A. Harleston, Lois Mailou Jones, Hughie Lee-Smith, Fred Flemister, John T. Biggers, Jacob Lawrence, Romare Bearden, Charles Alston, Charles White, John Wilson, Elizabeth Catlett, William Artis, William Edmondson (as Edmonson), Horace Pippin, Earle Richardson (as Earl), Claude Clark, Ernest Crichlow, Ellis Wilson, Robert Blackburn, Robert S. Pious, Norman Lewis, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Selma Burke, Eldzier Cortor, Ronald Joseph, Humbert Howard, Heywood Rivers, Richard Mayhew, Merton D. Simpson, and John Farrar. NEW YORK (NY). Downtown Gallery. American Negro Art, 19th and 20th Centuries. December 9, 1941-January 3, 1942. Exhib. cat. The first show of African American art held at a mainstream commercial gallery, the exhibition, curated by gallery owner Edith Halpert, was sponsored by a committee of prominent white patrons including Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, Archibald MacLeish, A. Philip Randolph, and Eleanor Roosevelt. Among its aims were to raise money for the Negro Art Fund, to promote museum acquisitions of work by Black artists, and to encourage galleries to represent the living participants. In addition to providing its facilities, the Downtown Gallery donated all sales commissions to the Negro Art Fund and added Jacob Lawrence to its roster of artists at this time. Artists included: 19th century: Edward Bannister, Robert Duncanson, Edwin Harleston, William H. Simpson, Henry O. Tanner; 20th century: Charles Alston, Henry Avery, Romare Bearden, Samuel J. Brown, William S. Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Felton Coleman, Eldzier Cortor, Cleo Crawford, Ernest Crichlow, Allan Crite, Charles Davis, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Palmer Hayden, Malvin Gray Johnson, William H. Johnson, Ron Joseph, Paul Keene, Joseph Kersey, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Elba Lightfoot, Archibald Motley, Frederick Perry, Horace Pippin, Charles Sebree, George N. Victory, Charles White, Ellis Wilson, Hale Woodruff. Printmakers: Robert Blackburn, John Borican, Claude Clarke, Wilmer Jennings, Bryant Pringle, Raymond Steth, Dox Thrash, James L. Wells. Sculptors: William Artis, Richmond Barthé, Selma Burke, William Edmondson, Sargent Johnson, Martha Manning, Augusta Savage, John Henry Smith. [See copy of catalogue in National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian, vertical files.] [Listed in Magazine of Art 34 (Nov. 1941):497 with incorrect dates. Review in Art Digest, December 15, 1941, praises the show, but in exceedingly demeaning racist language: "The American Negro has at last spoken in art -- firmly and distinctively, his voice having as definite an intonation with colors as his soul has in singing and dancing. His choice of dazzling colors is just as typical as his exaggerated sense of humor, his strut and guffaw; his concern with the burdened just as characteristic as his pleading songs to his Maker." NEW YORK (NY). Ebony Editors. Ebony Handbook. Chicago: Johnson Publisnt Company Pub., 1974. Of historical interest only. Includes over 150 artists, more than double the number who were included in Ebony's Negro Handbook of 1966. Nonetheless, this represents a very limited selection compared with the St. Louis Index (1972) and Cederholm (1973) which had been published in the two years immediately preceeding this revision. Includes: Charles Alston, Eileen Anderson, Ralph Arnold, William E. Artis, Kwasi Asante, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Sherman Beck, Ben Bey, Michelle C. Bey, John T. Biggers, Gloria Bohanon, Lorraine Bolton, Shirley Bolton, Elmer Brown, Samuel J. Brown, Herbert Bruce, Joan Bryant, Selma Burke, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Burroughs, Nathaniel Bustion, William S. Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Benjamin Clark, Claude Clark, Irene V. Clark, Floyd Coleman, Eldzier Cortor, Samuel Countee, G. C. Coxe, Ernest Crichlow, Allan Rohan Crite, Alonzo J. Davis, Charles C. Dawson, Richard Dempsey, J. Brooks Dendy, Jeff Donaldson, Harold S. Dorsey, Aaron Douglas, Annette Ensley, Marion Epting, P. Fernand (listed only in this publication), Frederick C. Flemister, Ausbra Ford, Leroy Foster, Meta Vaux Fuller, Rex Goreleigh, Joseph E. Grey, J. Eugene Grigsby, John W. Hardrick, Oliver Harrington, Frank Hayden, Palmer Hayden, Vertis C. Hayes, Eselean Henderson, Alvin C. Hollingsworth, Humbert Howard, Kenneth Howard (in this publication only), Richard Hughes, Richard Hunt, J.D. Jackson, Wilmer Jennings, Lester L. Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Ben Jones, Lawrence Jones, Lois Maillou Jones, Mark Jones, Charles Keck, James E. Kennedy, Joseph Kersey, Henri Umbaji King, Omar Lama, Jacob Lawrence, Clifford Lee, Hughie Lee-Smith, Leon Leonard, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Edward L. Loper, Anderson Macklin, William Majors, Stephen Mayo, Geraldine McCullough, Eva Hamlin Miller, Rosetta Dotson Minner, Corinne Mitchell, James Mitchell, Norma Morgan, Jimmie Mosely, Archibald J. Motley, Dindga McCannon, David Normand, Hayward Oubre, Sandra Peck, Marion Perkins, Alvin Phillips, Delilah Pierce, Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, Georgette Seabrooke Powell, Leo Twiggs, Al Tyler, Anna Tyler, Steve Walker, John Wilson, Hale Woodruff, Kenneth V. Young, et al. NEW YORK (NY). Freedomways Associates. Freedomways: A Quarterly Review of the Freedom Movement: Vol. 15, no. 1 (January 1975). 1975. 76 pp. Cover Art by Joan B. Maynard. Contains: "Black Women -- Internationalizing the Struggle" by The Editors; "Observations on the Bicentennial of the U.S." by J. H. O'Dell; "Time On The Cross: A Rallying Cry for Racists!" by Brenda L. Jones; "Richmond Barthé: Meeting in Lyon -- Poem" by Melvin Dixon; "Theodore Ward, Black American Playwright" by James V. Hatch, and more. 8vo, wraps. NEW YORK (NY). Gallery 62, National Urban League. Golden Opportunity. September 18-November 30, 1978. Unpag. (6 pp.) exhibition brochure, 1 b&w front panel illus. (Motley, The Jockey Club, Paris, c.1929), checklist of 26 works by 15 artists (loaned from the Schomburg Center, Terry Dintenfass Gallery, Merton D. Simpson Gallery, and Just Above Midtown Gallery). Includes: Charles Alston (1 work), Richmond Barthé (2 works), Romare Bearden (1 work), William Braxton (1 work), Selma Burke (1 work), Aaron Douglas (Cathedral, Port au Prince, 1938; Coll. Mr. & Mrs. Henry Lee Moon), Palmer Hayden (2 works), Jacob Lawrence (2 works), Archibald Motley (1 work), Augusta Savage (3 works), William E. Scott (1 work), Albert A. Smith (4 works), Henry O. Tanner (4 works), Charles White (1 work), Hale Woodruff (The Card Players, 1978; Coll. artist). A show of artists whose work appeared in the pages of Opportunity: Journal of Negro Life from 1923-1949. The inaugural exhibition of this important midtown venue for Black art during the 1970s and 1980s. Single bi-fold sheet (8.5 x 24 in.), printed on both sides. NEW YORK (NY). Harmon Foundation / International House. Exhibit of Fine Arts by American Negro Artists. January 3-15, 1929. Unpag. (16 pp.) exhib. cat. Group exhibition held at International House where it is said to have been viewed by over 6500 visitors. Gold medal: William H. Johnson; silver medal: Albert A. Smith; bronze medal to Sargent Johnson; special prize for best single exhibit went to Elizabeth Prophet for her two busts "Silence" and "Head of a Negro." Included: Frederick Cornelius Alston, Richmond Barthé, Samuel Ellis Blount, William E. Braxton, Elmer J. Campbell, Frank J. Dillon, Ferdinand W. Ellington, Allan R. Freelon, William Grant, Ruth Gray, John T. Hailstalk, John W. Hardrick, Palmer C. Hayden, Clifton T. Hill, Jessie M. Howard, May Howard Jackson, George H. Benjamin Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Henry Bozeman Jones, Richard W. Lindsey, Archibald J.Motley, Jr., Edward T. McDowell, James Porter, Hale Woodruff, et al. [Winners listed in The Crisis, February 1930.] The exhibition traveled next to the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, where it was exhibited in the museum foyer, and then to other venues. [Review: Ada Rainey, "Negro Art Exhibition Has Merit," Washington Post, May 19, 1929: Arts Review section, p.9.] 8vo (22 cm.), wraps. NEW YORK (NY). Harmon Foundation at the Art Center. Exhibition of productions by Negro artists: presented by the Harmon Foundation at the Art Center. February 20-March 4, 1933. 55 pp. exhib. cat., 36 illus., checklist of 107 works. Text "The Negro Takes His Place in American Art" by Alain Locke; unsigned essay, "News Happenings in the Field of Negro Art;" "A Forecast" by Howard Giles; list of 1933 award winners and Prize winner in previous exhibitions, 1926-1930, plus notes on 125 "Negro artists whose works have been shown in Harmon Foundation Exhibitions." Exhibited artists include: Palmer Hayden (Winner, Mrs. John D. Rockefeller Prize), James Lesesne Wells (bronze medal for most representative work in black and white.) and Charles J., Charles Henry Anderson, Frederick Cornelius Alston, Pastor Argudin y Pedroso, William Artis, George Edward Bailey, Mike Bannarn, Richmond Barthé, Humphreys Becket, James Bland, Samuel Ellis Blount, David P. Boyd, Cloyd L. Boykin, Edward J. Brandford, William E. Braxton, Daisy Brooks, Mabel Brooks, Samuel Joseph Worthington Brown, Eugene Burkes, William A. Cooper, Samuel A. Countee, Allan Crite, Charles C. Dawson, Beauford Delaney, Arthur Diggs, Frank J. Dillon, Lilian Dorsey, Aaron Douglas, Robert S. Duncanson, Ferdinand W. Ellington, William Farrow, Elton Fax, Allan R. Freelon, Meta Vaux Fuller, Otis Galbreath, William Goss, William E. Grant, Ruth Gray, Constance Grayson, John Hailstalk, John W. Hardrick, Edwin A. Harleston, John Taylor Harris, Palmer C. Hayden, Anzola D. Laird Hegomin, James V. Herring, Clifton Hill, Jesse Mae Housley, May Howard Jackson, J. Antonio Jarvis, Cornelius W. Johnson, George H. Benjamin Johnson, Gertrude Johnson, Gladys L. Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Archie Jones, Henry Bozeman Jones, Vivian Key, Benjamin Kitchin, Richard W. Lindsey, Romeyn Van Vleck Lippmann, Howard H. Mackey, Harold E. Marshall, Effie Mason, Helen Mason, Samuel E. MacAlpine, Edward T. McDowell, Susie McIver, C. G. McKenzie, Elenor McLaren, Archibald J. Motley, Richard B. Nugent, Allison Oglesby, Maude Owens, Suzanne Ogunjami Wilson (as Suzanna Ogunjami), Kenneth R. O'Neal, Elenor E. Paul, John Phillipis, Philip Leo Pierre, Robert S. Pious, Celestine Gustava Johnson Pope, James Porter, Elizabeth Prophet, Oliver Reid, Teodoro Ramos Blanco y Penita, Charles A. Robinson, Augusta Savage, William Edouard Scott, Albert A. Smith, Walter W. Smith, Charles Spears, Jr., Teressa Staats, Jesse Stubbs, Mary Lee Tate, Ulysses S. Tayes, Daniel Tillman, John E. Toodles, Laura Wheeler Waring, James Lesesne Wells, Simeon Sir Henry Williams, Ellis Wilson, Arthur Glenn Winslow, Hale Woodruff, et al. [Review: Rose Henderson, "Negro Artists In the Fifth Harmon Exhibition," The Southern Workman 62 (April 1933):175-181.] 8vo (22 cm.), stapled wraps. Cover illus. by James Porter; back cover illus. by Back cover illus. Head of a Girl by William Ellisworth Artis. NEW YORK (NY). Harmon Foundation at the Art Center. Exhibition of the Work of Negro Artists presented by the Harmon Foundation at the Art Center. February 16-28, 1931. 47 pp. exhib. cat., 34 b&w illus., checklist of 123 works by more than fifty artists. Illustrations include: "Chester" by Sargent Claude Johnson (front cover); . back cover illus. "The Old Servant" by Edwin Augustus Harleston. Texts: "Some Historical Reflections" by A. A. Schomburg and "The African Legacy and the Negro Artist" by Alain Locke; "Art and the Public Library" by Ernestine Rose; "A university Art Service" by James V. Herring. Artists include: James Latimer Allen, Frederick Alston, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, James Bland, Cloyd L. Boykin, Edward J. Brandford, Eugene A. Burkes, William A. Cooper, Allan Rohan Crite, Lilian A. Dorsey, Robert S. Duncanson, William M. Farrow, Allan R. Freelon, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, King Daniel Ganaway, William T. Goss, William E. Grant, John Wesley Hardrick, Edwin A. Harleston, Palmer Hayden, Anzola D. Laird Hegomin, May Howard Jackson, Malvin G. Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Henry Bozeman Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Vivian S. Key, Benjamin S. Kitchin, Edward T. McDowell, Richard W. Lindsey, Archibald J. Motley, Richard Nugent, Allison L. Oglesby, Philip Leo Pierre, Robert S. Pious (5 paintings), Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Dan Terry Reid, Donald Redvers Reid, D. Richard Reid, J. H. D. Robinson, Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Albert A. Smith, Mary Lee Tate, Daniel Norman Tillman, Laura Wheeler Waring, James Lesesne Wells, Richard Milby Williams, Arthur Glenn Winslow, Hale Woodruff, et al. 8vo (22 cm.), tan wraps. Front cover illus. by Sargent Johnson. NEW YORK (NY). Harmon Foundation in cooperation with the Delphic Studios. Negro Artists. An Illustrated Review of Their Achievements. April 22-May 4, 1935. 59 (1) pp. exhib. cat., 39 b&w illus. and photographs. Contains an important 18 page artist directory with addresses, brief bios and exhibition info. on 113 artists. Illustrations of work by Richmond Barthé, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Charles Alston, Hale Woodruff, Lawrence Edelin, Samuel Joseph Brown, Suzanne Ogunjami Wilson (as Suzanna Ogunjami), Leslie Garland Bowling, Aaron Douglas, Palmer Hayden, Wilmer Jennings; news notes on exhibitions by many others. The last and largest of the blockbuster Harmon Foundation exhibitions of the 1930s. Included roughly 150 artists in all media. The Malvin Gray Johnson Memorial section included the equivalent of a large solo exhibition: 35 oils and 18 watercolors; 21 works by Barthé and Johnson. [Reprint editions issued by Freeport, N.Y., Books for Libraries Press, 1971 and by Ayer Co., Salem, NH, 1991.] 8vo (23 cm.), stapled wraps. Cover illus. by Malvin Gray Johnson. NEW YORK (NY). International Print Society. Group exhibition.. October 1944. Included: Richmond Barthé, Hale Woodruff. [Review: "The Passing Shows," Art News 43 (October 15, 1944):26-29.] NEW YORK (NY). Kenkeleba House. Unbroken Circle: Exhibition of African American Artists of the 1930's and 1940's. 1986. 36 pp., 55 b&w illus., checklist of work by 56 artists (including 10 women artists). Intro. Corinne Jennings; text by David C. Driskell, and beautiful memoir by curator / artist Vincent D. Smith. Well-chosen examples of each artist's work. Includes: Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Robert Blackburn, William Braxton, Selma Burke, Samuel J. Brown, Elizabeth Catlett, Claude Clark, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Allan Rohan Crite, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Richard Dempsey, Reba Dickerson-Hill, Aaron Douglas, Elton Fax, Charlotte White Franklin, Meta Fuller, Herbert Gentry, Rex Goreleigh, Palmer Hayden, Humbert L. Howard, May Howard Jackson, Wilmer A. Jennings, Malvin G. Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Paul Keene, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, James Lewis, Norman Lewis, Joan Maynard, Archibald Motley, Delilah Pierce, Robert Pious, Georgette Powell, Daniel Pressley, Donald Reid, John Rhoden, Charles Sebree, Thomas Sills, Alma Thomas, Dox Thrash, Masood A. Warren, James Wells, Charles White, Walter Williams, Ed Wilson, Ellis Wilson, John Wilson, Hale Woodruff. Text includes discussion of some additional artists: Robert Duncanson, Edmonia Lewis, Henry Tanner, Valerie Maynard, James Porter. 4to, stapled wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Lever House. Sculpture '81. February 18-March 16, 1981. Exhib. cat., illus., biogs. Intro. by Doris McKelvy and Jack E. Jordan. Group exhibition curated by Bertina Hunter. Included: Richmond Barthé, Camille Billops (photo), Selma Burke, Betty Blayton, Elizabeth Catlett, James Denmark, Mel Edwards, Inge Hardison, Richard Hunt, Myra Ivory, Jack Jordan, Robert W. Kelly, Jerome B. Meadows, Arnold Prince, Tyrone Mitchell, John Rhoden, Lloyd Toone, Bo Walker, Masood Ali Warren, Frank Wimberley, Estella V. Wright. NEW YORK (NY). Metropolitan Museum of Art. Artists for Victory: An Exhibition of Contemporary American Art. 1942. Group exhibition. Included: Jacob Lawrence (purchase prize) and Richmond Barthé. Described in: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, Vol. 1, no. 4 (December 1942.) [Traveled to the Tate Gallery, London.] NEW YORK (NY). Michael Rosenfeld Gallery. African American Art, 20th century Masterworks, VI. January 14-March 6, 1999. 60 pp., 41 color plates, 36 b&w illus. Foreword by Michael Rosenfeld. Artists include: Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Selma Burke, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Harold Cousins, Allan Rohan Crite, Beauford Delaney, Sam Gilliam, Palmer Hayden, Richard Hunt, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Betye Saar, William Edouard Scott, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Bob Thompson, Bill Traylor, James VanDerZee, Charles White and Hale Woodruff. [Traveled to Flint Institute of Art, Flint, MI.] 8vo (23 cm.; 8.5 x 6 in.), pictorial stiff wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Michael Rosenfeld Gallery. African American Art: 200 Years: 40 distinctive voices reveal the breadth of nineteenth and twentieth century art. January 11-March 15, 2008. 156 pp. exhib. cat., color illus. Texts by Jonathan P. Binstock and Lowery Stokes Sims. Includes: Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Edward Mitchell Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden John Biggers, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Harold Cousins, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Robert S. Duncanson, William Edmondson, Allan Freelon, Sam Gilliam, Palmer Hayden, Joshua Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Archibald Motley Jr., Marion Perkins, Horace Pippin, Charles Ethan Porter, Betye Saar, Augusta Savage, William Edouard Scott, Charles Sebree, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, Laura Wheeler Waring, Charles White, Ellis Wilson, Hale Woodruff. 4to (34 cm.), boards. NEW YORK (NY). Michael Rosenfeld Gallery. African American Art: 20th century Masterworks, III. February 1-April 6, 1996. 48 pp. exhib. cat., 49 color plates (most full-page), exhib. checklist; statements by artists and brief biogs. of each. Includes: Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Bearden, Richmond Barthé, Eldzier Cortor, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, William Edmondson, Sam Gilliam, Palmer Hayden, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois. Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Richard Mayhew, Prentiss Polk, James Porter, Betye Saar, Augusta Savage, Henry O. Tanner, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, James Vanderzee, Charles White, Ellis Wilson, Hale Woodruff. 8vo (23 cm.; 8.5 x 6 in.), pictorial stiff wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Michael Rosenfeld Gallery. African American Art: 20th century Masterworks, V. January 22-March 21, 1998. 52 pp., checklist of 44 works, all illus. in color, plus b&w photos of artists with brief biog. notes for each. Text by Leslie King-Hammond. Includes: Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Harold Cousins, Beauford Delaney, Aaron Douglas, William Edmondson, Sam Gilliam, Palmer Hayden, Richard Hunt, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Haywood Oubré, Marion Perkins, Horace Pippin, Betye Saar, Henry O. Tanner, Bob Thompson, Bill Traylor, VanDerZee, Charles White, Hale Woodruff. [Traveled to Newcombe Art Gallery, Tulane University, New Orleans.] 8vo (8.5 x 6 in.), pictorial stiff wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Michael Rosenfeld Gallery. African-American Art: 20th Century Masterworks. November 18-February 12, 1994. 32 pp., 29 color illus. Text by Beryl Wright. Work by 23 artists: Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Alan Rohan Crite, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Palmer Hayden, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Archibald Motley, Jr., Hayward Oubré, Augusta Savage, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Bob Thompson, Charles White, Hale Woodruff. Sq. 8vo (8.5 x 6 in.), pictorial stiff wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Michael Rosenfeld Gallery. African-American Art: 20th Century Masterworks, IV. January 23-March 26, 1997. 48 pp. exhib. cat., 38 color illus., biogs. 30 artists included: Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, William Ellisworth Artis, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Eldzier Cortor, Beauford Delaney, William Edmondson, Sam Gilliam, William Harper, Palmer Hayden, Richard Hunt, Malvin Gray Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Richard Mayhew, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, Betye Saar, Augusta Savage, William Edouard Scott, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, Charles White, and Hale Woodruff. [Also exhibited at Fisk University, Nashville, April 1-June1, 1997.] 8vo (23 cm.; 8.5 x 6 in.), pictorial stiff wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Michael Rosenfeld Gallery. African-American Art: 20th Century Masterworks, VII. Educating our children. January 13-March 4, 2000. 70 pp., color illus., bibliog. Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, William E. Artis, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Selma Burke, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Harold Cousins, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Palmer Hayden, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Edward Loper, Marion Perkins, Horace Pippin, Betye Saar, Albert Alexander Smith, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, Bill Traylor, James VanDerZee, Laura Wheeler Waring, Charles White, Ellis Wilson, Hale Woodruff. [Traveled to Appleton Museum, Florida State University, Ocala, FL.] 8vo (23 cm., 8.5 x 6 in.), pictorial stiff wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Michael Rosenfeld Gallery. African-American Art: 20th Century Masterworks, VIII. January 18-March 10, 2001. 68 pp. exhib. catalogue, 70 illus. (mostly in color), bibliog. Foreword by Alvia J. Wardlaw; text by hallery k harrisburg and Michael Rosenfeld. Artists include: Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, William E. Artis, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Beauford Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Herbert Gentry, Palmer Hayden, William H. Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Richard Mayhew, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Betye Saar, Augusta Savage, Charles Sebree, Albert Alexander Smith, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, Bill Traylor, James VanDerZee, Charles White, Ellis Wilson, Hale Woodruff. [Traveled to: Texas Southern University Museum, Houston, TX.] Sq. 8vo (23 cm.; 8.5 x 6 in.), pictorial stiff wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Michael Rosenfeld Gallery. African-American art: 20th Century Masterworks, X. January 17-March 8, 2003. 80 pp. exhib. cat., illus. (44 in color), bibliog. Text by Robin Kelley. 27 artists included: Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Eldzier Cortor, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Palmer Hayden, William H. Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Marion Perkins, Horace Pippin, Betye Saar, Augusta Savage, William Edouard Scott, Charles Sebree, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, Bill Traylor, James VanderZee, Charles White, Ellis Wilson, Hale Woodruff. 8vo (23 cm.; 8.5 x 6 in.), pictorial stiff wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Michael Rosenfeld Gallery. American Identity: Figurative Painting and Sculpture, 1930-1945. May 9-July 11, 2003. Group exhibition. Included: Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Palmer Hayden, Jacob Lawrence, Augusta Savage. NEW YORK (NY). Michael Rosenfeld Gallery. Exultations: African American Art: 20th century Masterworks, II. February 1-April 8, 1995. 48 pp., 45 color plates, 3 b&w illus., exhib. checklist of 51 works by 29 artists. Text by Richard J. Powell. Includes: Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Ernie Barnes, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Norman Cousins, Allan Rohan Crite, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Sam Gilliam, Palmer Hayden, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Horace Pippin, Robert Pious, Prentice H. Polk, James A. Porter, Betye Saar, Augusta Savage, Henry O. Tanner, Bob Thompson, James VanDerZee, Charles White, Ellis Wilson, and Hale Woodruff. [Traveled to Flint Art Institute, Flint, MI.] Sq. 8vo (23 cm.; 8.5 x 6 in.), pictorial stiff wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Michael Rosenfeld Gallery. Facets of the Figure: A Spectrum of 20th Century American Art. June 6-August 22, 1997. Group exhibition of 30 artists. Included: Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Beauford Delaney, Bob Thompson, Charles White. NEW YORK (NY). Michael Rosenfeld Gallery. We the People! American Voices of the WPA Era. April 11-June 6, 1996. Group exhibition of eight artists. One sculpture by Richmond Barthé. NEW YORK (NY). New York Public Library. Bulletin of Research in the Humanities Vol. 84, No. 2 (Summer 1981) Schomburg Center Issue. 1981. A Preliminary Catalogue of the Art and Artifacts collection of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. Mentions the following artists: Charles Alston, Pastor Argudin y Pedroso, Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, William Braxton, Dana Chandler, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Ernest Crichlow, Beauford Delaney, Aaron Douglas, David Driskell, Melvin Edwards, William Farrow, Elton Fax, Meta Fuller, Rex Goreleigh, Palmer Hayden, Richard Hunt, Malvin Gray Johnson, Lois Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Edmonia Lewis, Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, Horace Pippin, (white South American artist) Teodoro Ramos Blanco, Earle Richardson, Faith Ringgold, Bernie Robynson, Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Albert A. Smith, Marvin Smith, Morgan Smith, Vincent Smith, Henry O. Tanner, Laura Waring, James L. Wells, Charles White, William T. Williams. 8vo, wraps. NEW YORK (NY). Sacks Fine Art, Inc. African American Artists Then and Now. 1993. Unpag. sale catalogue, illus. A greatly expanded roster over the previous year's offering including several women artists for the first time. Listing of New York. Artists currently available includes: Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Ernest Crichlow, Alan Rohan Crite, Eldzier Cortor, Roy DeCarava, Joseph Delaney, Beauford Delaney, John Wesley Hardrick, Palmer Hayden, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Augusta Savage, Charles Sebree, Allen Stringfellow, Henry O. Tanner, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, Ellis Wilson, Hale Woodruff, et al. NEW YORK (NY). Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. Black New York Artists of the 20th Century: Selections from the Schomburg Center Collections. November 19, 1998-March 31, 1999. 96 pp. exhib. cat., 127 illus. (36 in color), bibliog. Ed. and text by curator Victor N. Smythe. Includes 125 artists: Tina Allen, Charles Alston, Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, Ellsworth Ausby, Abdullah Aziz, Xenobia Bailey, Ellen Banks, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Camille Billops, Bob Blackburn, Kabuya Bowens, William E. Braxton, Kay Brown, Selma Burke, Carole Byard, Elmer Simms Campbell, Nanette Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Violet Chandler, Colin Chase, Schroeder Cherry, Ed Clark, Houston Conwill, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Emilio Cruz, Michael Cummings, Diane Davis, Lisa Corinne Davis, Francks Francois Deceus, Avel C. DeKnight, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Louis Delsarte, James Denmark, Aaron Douglas, Taiwo Duvall, Melvin Edwards, Elton Fax, Tom Feelings, Robert T. Freeman, Herbert Gentry, Rex Goreleigh, Theodore Gunn, Inge Hardison, Oliver Harrington, Verna Hart, Palmer Hayden, Carl E. Hazlewood, Alvin C. Hollingsworth, Manuel Hughes, Bill Hutson, Harlan Jackson, Laura James, Wadsworth Jarrell, Jamillah Jennings, M.L.J. Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Oliver Johnson, Gwen Knight, Jacob Lawrence, Cecil Lee, Hughie Lee-Smith, Richard Leonard, Norman Lewis, Bell Earl Looney, Valerie Maynard, Dindga McCannon, Sam Middleton, Onaway K. Millar, Louis E. Mimms, Tyrone Mitchell, Mark Keith Morse, George J.A. Murray, Sr., Sana Musasama, Otto Neals, Jide Ojo, Ademola Olugebefola, James Phillips, Anderson Pigatt, Robert S. Pious, Rose Piper, Georgette Seabrooke Powell, Debra Priestly, Ronald Okoe Pyatt, Abdur-Rahman, Patrick Reason, Donald A. Reid, Earle Richardson, Faith Ringgold, Winfred J. Russell, Alison Saar, Augusta Savage, Charles Searles, Charles Sebree, James Sepyo, Milton Sherrill, Danny Simmons, Deborah Singletary, Albert Alexander Smith, Mei Tei Sing-Smith, Vincent Smith, Tesfaye Tessema, Dox Thrash, Haileyesus Tilahun, Bo Walker, Arlington Weithers, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Emmett Wigglesworth, Billy Doe Williams, Grace Williams, Michael Kelly Williams, Walter H. Williams, William T. Williams, Ellis Wilison, George Wilson, Ron and Addelle Witherspoon, Hale Woodruff. as well as work by members of the collectives Spiral and Weusi and the early '70s exhibit by black women artists called Where We At, and dozens more. 4to (28 x 22 cm.), pictorial wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Sculptors Guild. Sculptors Guild Traveling Exhibition. 1940. [134] pp. exhib. cat., 111 plates, including photos of the sculptors in their studios, biog. notes, checklist of 56 works by fifty-six sculptors, including one African American artist (Richmond Barthé). Barthé's piece was his portrait bust of the actor John Gielgud as Hamlet. 4to, wraps. NEW YORK (NY). Studio Museum in Harlem. Challenge of the Modern: African American Artists, 1925-1946. January 23-March 30, 2003. 125 pp., illus. (many in color), bibliog. Texts by Lowery Stokes Sims, Rocio Aranda-Alvarado, Leronn Brooks, Leslie King-Hammond and Helen Shannon. Artists include: James Latimer Allen, Charles Alston, William Artis, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Robert Blackburn, Samuel Joseph Brown, Jr., Selma Burke, Albert I. Cassell, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Stuart Davis, Beauford Delaney, Aaron Douglas, William Edmondson, Louis Fry, Palmer Hayden, Clementine Hunter, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Anna Russell Jones, Wifredo Lam, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Howard Mackey, Edna Manley, Robert McNeil, Archibald Motley, Bruce Nugent, Philomé Obin, Hayward Oubré, Horace Pippin, Elizabeth Prophet, Winnold Reiss (white), Hilyard Robinson, Charles Sebree, Morgan and Marvin Smith, James Vanderzee, Carl Van Vechten (white), James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Ellis Wilson, Clarence "Cap" Wigington, Hale Woodruff. 4to (11 x 8.5 in.; 30 cm.), wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Studio Museum in Harlem. Invisible Americans: Black Artists of the 1930s. 1968. Group exhibition. Curated by Henri Ghent. Included: Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Vivian Browne, Ernest Crichlow, Joseph Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Felrath Hines, Malvin Gray Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Faith Ringgold, Augusta Savage, Hale Woodruff, and perhaps others as well. [Reviews: "Blacks Talk Back to Whitney Museum," New York Amsterdam News (November 23, 1968):30; see Hilton Kramer's negative (racist) review "Differences in Quality," NYT, November 28, 1968; and Henri Ghent's response "White is not Superior," NYT, December 8, 1968.] NEW YORK (NY). Studio Museum in Harlem. Ritual and Myth: A Survey of African American Art. June 20-November 1, 1982. 52 pp., 8 color plates (including cover), 18 b&w illus., checklist of 70 works, bibliog. Intro. David C. Driskell; text by Leslie King Hammond. Includes 9 African sculptures; 11 early works by Edmonia Lewis, Meta Warrick Fuller, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Richmond Barthé, Aaron Douglas, and Allan Rohan Crite; 15 works by seven artists grouped as Intuitives and Visionaries: Harriet Powers, William H. Johnson, Horace Pippin, Elijah Pierce, Nellie Mae Rowe, Sister Gertrude Morgan, Elizabeth Caldwell Scott; six Caribbean artists: Wifredo Lam, Leroy Clarke, Luis Flores, Murat Brierre, Edgar Brierre, Georges Liautaud; and 28 works by fourteen contemporary African American artists under the category Contemporary Mythmakers: Melvin Edwards, Romare Bearden, Beverly Buchanan, Houston Conwill, Eldzier Cortor, Hughie Lee Smith, Lorenzo Pace, Noah Jemisin, Joyce Scott, Betye Saar, Ben Jones, George Smith, Ademola Olugebefola, Edgar H. Sorrells-Adewale. Sq. 8vo (21 cm.), pictorial stapled wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Whitney Museum of American Art. 1940 Whitney Annual. 1940. Group exhibition. Included: Richmond Barthé. NEW YORK (NY). Whitney Museum of American Art. 1947 Annual Exhibition. 1947. Group exhibition. Included: Richmond Barthé, Jacob Lawrence. NEW YORK (NY). Whitney Museum of American Art. 1948 Annual Exhibition. 1948. Exhib. cat., illus. Included: Richmond Barthé (illus.) and Jacob Lawrence. [Review: Thomas B. Hess, "Pity the Poor Sculptor," Art News 47 (March 1948): 20-21+.] NEW YORK (NY). Whitney Museum of American Art. William Carlos Williams and the American Scene, 1920-1940. 1978. 168 pp., 16 color plates, 128 b&w illus., frontis photo of Williams by Sheeler, extensive text by Dickran Tashjian, notes, bibliog., exhib. checklist. Includes: two sculptures each by Richmond Barthe and William Edmondson, one painting by William H. Johnson and a few paragraphs of text discussing these works with mention of Alain Locke's interest in traditional African art. 4to, wraps. NEWARK (DE). University Gallery, University of Delaware. Hear What I'm Seeing: Selected Works from the Art Collection of Donald Byrd. June 2-October 1, 2000. Art from the collection of jazz legend Donald Byrd. Includes: Henry Ossawa Tanner, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden. Jacob Lawrence, Lois Mailou Jones, Ernest Crichlow, Charles White, James Lesesne Wells, Faith Ringgold, Jeff Donaldson, Paul Goodnight and Tyree Guyton. NEWARK (NJ). Newark Museum. Black Artists: Two Generations. May 13-September 6, 1971. 36 pp. exhib. catalogue listing 115 works by 59 artists (only 10 women artists included), 58 b&w illus. plus b&w cover design by Dmitri Wright; addresses for approx. 30 artists. Text by Samuel C. Miller; poem by Paul Waters. Important record of one of the major African American exhibitions of the early 1970s. Includes: Charles Axt, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Betty Blayton, Samuel Brown, Ernest Crichlow, Norma Criss, Allan Rohan Crite, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Beauford Delaney, Aaron Douglas, William Edmondson, Barbara Fudge, John Fudge, James Green, Palmer Hayden, Eddie Holmes, Raymond Hunt, Bill Hutson, Zell Ingram, Gerald Jackson, Bob James, Florian Jenkins, Wilmer Jennings, Ben Johnson, Jeanne Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Ben Jones, Leon Jones, Robert Knight, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Edward Loper, Frank Marshall, Marietta (Betty) Mayes, Gordon Mayes, Richard Mayhew, Don Miller, Julia Miller, Joe Overstreet, Horace Pippin, Rev. Arthur Roach, Junius Redwood, Robert Reid, Haywood Bill Rivers, Bernard Séjourne, Christopher Shelton, Margaret Slade (Kelley), George Smith, Vincent Smith, Thelma Johnson Streat, Dox Thrash, Paul Waters, Charles White, John Wilson, Hale Woodruff, and Dmitiri Wright. Small 4to (26 cm.), pictorial stapled card wraps. First ed. NORFOLK (VA). Norfolk Museum of Arts and Sciences. Contemporary Sculpture: 16 Americans: Exhibition. International Business Machines Corporation, 1949. [8] pp. exhib. cat. 16 works exhibited, artists' biogs. Exhibition drawn from the IBM Collection. Half of the artists are African American: Charles Alston, William E. Artis, Henry W. Bannarn, Richmond Barthé, Selma Burke, Sargent Johnson, Clarence Lawson, Marion Perkins. 8vo, wraps. OAKLAND (CA). Ebony Museum of Art. In Celebration of the African-American Artist, Expo 1989. 1989. Unpag. (52 pp.), illus. Includes: Betye Saar, Selma Burke, Richmond Barthé, Jacob Lawrence, Alma Thomas, and dozens of others. Sq. 8vo (21 cm.; 7.75 x 7.75 in.), wraps. OAKLAND (CA). Thelma Harris Gallery. White Linen Nights: Icons and Influences. August 17-September 21, 2007. Group exhibition. Included: Richmond Barthé, Claude Lewis, Samella Lewis. OBERLIN (OH). Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College. Portraits of Black Experience. September 1, 2005-June 4, 2006. Five-artist exhibition. Richmond Barthé, Willie Cole, Horace Pippin, Carrie Mae Weems, John Wilson. OCALA (FL). Appleton Museum, and other venues. Southern Journeys: African American Artists of the South. April, 2010. Group exhibition of 55 paintings, sculptures and works on paper that examine the work of African American artists who have chronicled the history of Southern culture in their art through memory of place, rather than their current place of work. Seemingly an offshoot of the exhibition by the same title organized by the Alexandria Museum of Art and Stella Jones gallery. Artists include: Sarah Albritton, Leroy Allen, Benny Andrews, Radcliffe Bailey, John Barnes, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Ron Bechet, John Biggers, Willie Birch, Beverly Buchanan, Claire Foster Burnett, Margaret Burroughs, Elizabeth Catlett, Claude Clark, Sr., Jeffrey Cook, Ernest Crichlow, Alonzo Davis, Louis Delsarte, James Denmark, David Driskell, Malaika Favorite, Reginald Gammon, Gharles Gilliam, Sr., Eugene Grigsby, Frank Hayden, Randall Henry, Lester Holt, Jr., Clementine Hunter, Wadsworth Jarrell, Lawrence Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Mapo Kinnard-Payton, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Samella Lewis, Ruth Mae McCrane, William Pajaud, Martin Payton, Joseph Pearson, Alvin Roy, John T. Scott, Morris Taft Thomas, Mose Tolliver, Charles White, Lorna Williams, Michele Wood. [Traveling exhibition circulated by Exhibits USA.] OKLAHOMA CITY (OK). Oklahoma City Museum of Art. Harlem Renaissance. February 5-April 19, 2009. 156 pp. exhib. cat. Included more than 100 paintings, sculptures, and photographs by artists such as: James Lattimore Allen, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Aaron Douglas, Palmer Hayden, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Archibald J. Motley Jr., Faith RInggold, James Vanderzee, Hale Woodruff, and others. 4to (31 x 23 cm.), wraps. OPITZ, GLENN B. ed. Dictionary of American Sculptors: 18th Century to the Present. Poughkeepsie: Apollo, 1984. 656 pp. Includes: Charles Alston, William Artis, Annabelle Baker, Richmond Barthé, Edward Bereal, John Biggers, Leslie Bolling, Selma Burke, Elizabeth Catlett, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Harold Cousins, Frederick Eversley, Florville Foy, Charlotte White Franklin, James Hampton, Richard Hunt, May Howard Jackson, Daniel LaRue Johnson, Lester Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Edmonia Lewis, Juan Logan, Lester Nathan Matthews, Valerie Maynard, Ned [Brown], Daniel G. Olney, Hayward Oubré, Curtis Patterson, Elliott Pinkney, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Martin Puryear, John Rhoden, Faith Ringgold, Betye Saar, Jewel Woodard Simon, Robert J. Stull, Bill Taylor (William Badley Taylor], Rod Allen Taylor, Dox Thrash, Eugene Warburg, Meta Vaux Warrick [Fuller], James W. Washington, Jr., and Todd Williams. OTFINOSKI, STEVEN. African Americans in the Visual Arts. New York: Facts on File, 2003. x, 262 pp., 50 b&w photos of some artists, brief 2-page bibliog., index. Part of the A to Z of African Americans series. Lists over 170 visual artists (including 18 photographers) and 22 filmmakers with brief biographies and token bibliog. for each. An erratic selection, far less complete than the St. James Guide to Black Artists, and inexplicably leaving out over 250 artists of obvious historic importance (for ex.: Edwin A. Harleston, Grafton Tyler Brown, Charles Ethan Porter, Wadsworth Jarrell, John Outterbridge, Noah Purifoy, William Majors, Camille Billops, Whitfield Lovell, Al Loving, Ed Clark, John T. Scott, Maren Hassinger, Lorraine O'Grady, Winnie Owens-Hart, Adrienne Hoard, Oliver Jackson, Frederick Eversley, Glenn Ligon, Sam Middleton, Ed Hamilton, Pat Ward Williams, etc. and omitting a generation of well-established contemporary artists who emerged during the late 70s-90s. [Note: a newly revised edition of 2012 (ten pages longer) has not rendered it a worthy reference work on this topic.] 8vo (25 com), laminated papered boards. PAINTER, NELL IRVIN. Creating Black Americans: African American History and its Meanings 1619 to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. xvi, 458 pp., 148 illus. (110 in color), 4 maps, bibliog., index. Valuable for its images. A historical and cultural narrative that stretches from Africa to hip-hop with unusual attention paid to visual work. However, Painter is a historian not an art historian and therefore deals with the art in summary fashion without discussion of its layered imagery. Artists named include: Sylvia Abernathy, Tina Allen, Charles Alston, Emma Amos, Xenobia Bailey, James Presley Ball, Edward M. Bannister, Amiri Baraka (as writer), Richmond Barthé, Jean-Michel Basquiat, C. M. Battey, Romare Bearden, Arthur P. Bedou, John T. Biggers, Camille Billops, Carroll Parrott Blue, Leslie Bolling, Chakaia Booker, Cloyd Boykin, Kay Brown, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Burroughs, Elizabeth Catlett, Dana Chandler, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Chris Clark, Claude Clarke, Houston Conwill, Brett Cook-Dizney, Allan Rohan Crite, Willis "Bing" Davis, Roy DeCarava, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, David C. Driskell, Robert S. Duncanson, Melvin Edwards, Tom Feelings, Roland L. Freeman, Meta Warrick Fuller, Paul Goodnight, Robert Haggins, Ed Hamilton, David Hammons, Inge Hardison, Edwin A. Harleston, Isaac Hathaway, Palmer Hayden, Kyra Hicks, Freida High-Tesfagiogis, Paul Houzell, Julien Hudson, Margo Humphrey, Richard Hunt, Clementine Hunter, Wadsworth Jarrell, Joshua Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, William H. Johnson, Barbara Jones-Hogu, Jacob Lawrence, Viola Burley Leak, Charlotte Lewis, Edmonia Lewis, Samella Lewis, Glenn Ligon, Estella Conwill Majozo, Valerie Maynard, Aaron McGruder, Lev Mills, Scipio Moorhead, Archibald Motley, Jr., Howardena Pindell, Horace Pippin, James A. Porter, Harriet Powers, Faith Ringgold, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, JoeSam, Melvin Samuels (NOC 167), O.L. Samuels, Augusta Savage, Joyce J. Scott, Herbert Singleton, Albert A. Smith, Morgan & Marvin Smith, Vincent Smith, Nelson Stevens, Ann Tanksley, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Dox Thrash, James Vanderzee, Kara Walker, Paul Wandless, Augustus Washington, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Pat Ward Williams, Hale Woodruff, Purvis Young. 8vo (9.4 x 8.2 in.), cloth, d.j. First ed. PATTERSON, LINDSAY, compiled and ed. The Negro in Music and Art. New York: Publishers Company, Inc. [International Library of Negro Life and History vol. 9], 1967. xvi, 304 pp., illus., portraits, bibliog. 4to (28 cm.), cloth, d.j. 2nd ed. 1968 PATTON, SHARON F. African American Art. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. 319 pp., illus. throughout in color and b&w, notes, list of illus., timeline, index. Excellent new survey covering approximately 108 artists from Scipio Moorhead to Dawoud Bey, including 22 women artists: Charles Alston, Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, Malcolm Bailey, James Presley Ball, Henry (Mike) Bannarn, Edward Bannister, Dutreuil Barjon, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Romare Bearden, Peter Bentzon, Dawoud Bey, Bob Blackburn, Grafton Tyler Brown, Vivian E. Browne, Jacob (Jacoba) Bunel, Elizabeth Catlett, Dana Chandler, Ed Clark, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Houston Conwill, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Dave (the Potter), Thomas Day, Beauford Delaney, Jean-Louis Dolliole, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, Robert M. Douglass, Robert S. Duncanson, William Edmondson, Melvin Edwards, Minnie Evans. Frederick J. Eversley, John Frances, Meta Fuller, Reginald Gammon, Herbert Gentry, Sam Gilliam, Célestin Glapion, Thomas Goss, Jr., Henry Gudgell, David Hammons, James Hampton, Maren Hassinger, Palmer Hayden, Alvin C. Hollingsworth, Richard Hunt, Bill Hutson, Clifford L. Jackson, May Howard Jackson, Martha Jackson-Jarvis, Oliver Jackson, Wadsworth A. Jarrell, Daniel Larue Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Ben Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Jules Lion, Tom Lloyd, Al Loving, Richard Mayhew, Sam Middleton, Scipio Moorhead, Keith Morrison, Archibald Motley, Ademola Olugebefola, Mary Lovelace O'Neal, Howardena Pindell, Adrian Piper, Rose Piper, Horace Pippin, Harriet Powers, Noah Purifoy, Martin Puryear, Patrick Reason, Faith Ringgold, Jean Rousseau, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, Augusta Savage, Addison Scurlock, Lorna Simpson, Merton D. Simpson, Vincent D. Smith, Thelma Streat, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, Dox Thrash, James Vanderzee, Christian Walker, William W. Walker, Eugene Warburg, Charles White, Pat Ward Williams, Walter J. Williams, Hale Woodruff. 4to, cloth, d.j. First ed PHILADELPHIA (PA). Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Catalog of the 138th Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture. 1943. Exhib. cat. Includes: Richmond Barthé's bust "Julius". PHILADELPHIA (PA). Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Catalog of the 139th Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture. 1944. Exhib. cat. Includes: Richmond Barthé and Horace Pippin (as Pippen). PHILADELPHIA (PA). Philadelphia Museum of Art. Third Sculpture International. May 15-September 11, 1949. Group exhibition of sculpture that included works from 250 international sculptors, "organized by the Fairmont Park Art Association under the terms of a bequest made to the Association by the late Ellen Phillips Samuel." [Life Magazine, June 20, 1949 includes group photo of 70+ sculptors in the show.] PHILADELPHIA (PA). Pyramid Club. Third Annual Exhibition. 1943. Group exhibition. Included: Richmond Barthé, Paul Keene, two paintings by Horace Pippin, et al. PHILADELPHIA (PA). School District and Museum of the Philadelphia Civic Center. Afro-American Artists, 1800-1969. December 5-29, 1969. 40 pp., list of over 100 artists. Important exhibition juried by Al Hollingsworth, Reginald Gammon and Louis Sloan. Intro. by curator Randall J. Craig mentions many artists not in the exhibition. Exhibition includes: Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, Ralph Arnold, James Ayers, Frederick Bacon, Joseph C. Bailey, Janette Banks, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Harry W. Bayton, Romare Bearden, Betty Blayton, James Brantley, Arthur Britt, Charles E. Brown, Samuel J. Brown, Reginald Bryant, Barbara Bullock, Selma Burke, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Burroughs, Frederick Campbell, Barbara Chase-Riboud, LeRoy Clarke, Louise Clement, Eldzier Cortor, R. J. Craig, Nicholas Davis, William Day, Avel DeKnight, J. Brooks Dendy, James Denmark, Reba Dickerson (a.k.a. Reba Dickerson-Hill), Thomas Dickerson Jr., Robert Duncanson, Walter Edmonds, Cliff Eubanks Jr., Charlotte White Franklin, Allan Freelon, Reginald Gammon, Charles W. Gavin, Ranson Z. Gaymon, Walter S. Gilliam, Marvin Hardin, Bernard Harmon, Palmer Hayden, Barkley Hendricks, Alvin Hollingsworth, Humbert Howard, Alfonzo Hudson, Leroy Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnson, Lois M. Jones, Cliff Joseph, Paul Keene, Columbus P. Knox, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, James Lewis, Norman Lewis, Tom Lloyd, Geraldine McCullough, Charles McGee, Thomas A. McKinney, Lloyd McNeill, Juanita Miller, Robert C. Moore, Jimmie Mosely, Horace Pippin, James Porter, Simon D. Prioleau, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Ed J. Purnell, Percy Ricks, Anita B. Riley, Faith Ringgold, Raymond Saunders, Charles Searles, Michael Shelton, Thomas Sills, John Simpson, Merton Simpson, Louis Sloan, Carl R. Smith, Dolphus Smith, Philippe Smith, Frank Stephens, Mary L. Stuckey, Eldridge Suggs III, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Mary Alice Taylor, Russ Thompson, Dox Thrash, Ellen Powell Tiberino, Lloyd Toone, John Wade, Cranston Oliver Walker, Laura Wheeler Waring, Howard Watson, John Brantley Wilder, Earl A. Wilkie, Ed Wilson, Hale Woodruff, Charles E. Yates, Hartwell Yeargans. 4to (26 cm.), wraps. First ed. PHILADELPHIA (PA). Woodmere Art Museum. In Search of Missing Masters: The Lewis Tanner Moore Collection of African American Art. September 28, 2008-February 22, 2009. 119 pp. exhib. cat., 133 color plates (most full-page) and several b&w illus., checklist of 135 paintings, sculptures, and works on paper by 92 artists. Texts by Lewis Tanner Moore, Curlee Raven Holton, Margaret Rose Vendryes; brief biogs. by W. Douglas, Paschall. Includes: Henry Ossawa Tanner, Amelia Amaki, Emma Amos, James Atkins, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Cleveland Bellow, Bob Blackburn, Berrisford Boothe, James Brantley, Benjamin Britt, Moe Brooker, Samuel Joseph Brown, Barbara Bullock, Selma urke, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Burroughs, Charles Burwell, Donald Camp, James Camp, William S. Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Claude Clark, Irene V. Clark, Nanette Clark, Kevin Cole, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Allan Rohan Crite, Roy Crosse, Joseph Delaney, Marita Dingus, David C. Driskell, James Dupree, Walter Edmonds, Allan Edmunds, James Edwards, Melvin Edwards, Allan Freelon, Reginald Gammon, Herbert Gentry, Sam Gilliam, Rex Goreleigh, Barkley Hendricks, Curley Holton, Humbert Howard, Edward Ellis Hughes, Bill Hutson, Leroy Johnson, Martina Joshnson-Allen, Lois Mailou Jones, Ron H. Jones, Paul Keene, Glenn F. Kellum, Columbus Knox, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Ed Loper, Al Loving, Deryl Daniel Mackie, Ulysses Marshall, Richard Mayhew, John McDaniel, Thaddeus G. Mosley, Frank Neal, George Neal, Hayward Oubre, Carlton Parker, Janet Taylor Pickett, Howardena Pindell, Charles Pridgen, Faith Ringgold, Leo Robinson, Qaaim Salik, Raymond Saunders, Charles Searles, Charles Sebree, Sterling Shaw, Louis Sloan, Raymond Steth, Phil Sumpter, Dox Thrash, Ellen Powell Tiberino, Andrew Turner, Howard Watson, Richard Watson, James Lesesne Wells, William T. Williams, Ellis Wilson, John Wilson, and Hale Woodruff. 4to, self-wraps. First ed. PITTSBURGH (PA). Carnegie Institute. Carnegie International Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture 1938. 1938. Group exhibition. Included: Richmond Barthé. [Review: Art Digest 12 (June 1, 1938):13. Mentions Barthé.] PITTSBURGH (PA). Frick Fine Arts Museum, University of Pittsburgh. Black American Art from the Barnett Aden Collection. September 17-23, 1977. 56 pp. exhib. cat., 51 b&w illus., checklist, text. 37 Black artists represented: Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Cynthia Brantley, James Brantley, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Aaron Douglas, David Driskell, Adolphus Ealey, John Farrar, Frederick Flemister, Archibald J. Motley, Jr. Jacob Lawrence, James A. Porter, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Laura Wheeler Waring, Richard Watson, Charles White, Ellis Wilson, Hale Woodruff, et al. Stapled black and white pictorial wraps. PLEASANTVILLE (NY). Reader's Digest. Faces and Figures: Selected works by Black Artists from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. February 12-April 1, 1988. 6 pp. exhib. cat., 1 color illus., exhib. checklist. Curated and text by Lowery Stokes Sims. Included: Charles Alston, Malcolm Bailey, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Frederick Brown, Samuel Brown, Robert Colescott, James Denmark, Avel DeKnight, Herbert Gentry, Jacob Lawrence, Howardena Pindell, Horace Pippin, Raymond Saunders, Bob Thompson, Hale Woodruff. 4to (28 cm.), wraps. PLOSKI, HARRY A. and ERNEST KAISER, eds. AFRO USA: A Reference Wok on the Black Experience. New York: Bellwether Co., 1971. [x], 1110 pp., 14 b&w illus. of art and visual artists, bibliog., index. Massive encyclopedic reference work with small section (pp. 702-723) devoted to visual art. Includes entries on Charles Alston, Robert Bannister, Richmond Barthe, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, William Carter, Dana Chandler, Ernest Crichlow, Aaron Douglas, Robert Duncanson, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, Alice Gafford, Sam Gilliam, Rose Green, David Hammons, William Harper, Isaac Hathaway, Hector Hill, Richard Hunt, May Howard Jackson, Jack Jordan, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Geraldine McCullough, Earl Miller, P'lla Mills, Joseph Overstreet, Horace Pippin, Augusta Savage, Vincent Smith, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Bob Thompson, Laura Wheeler Waring, Charles White, Jack Whitten, Beulah Woodard, and Hale Woodruff. The list of "Other Noted Negro Painters and Sculptors" includes: Benny Andrews, William E. Artis, Henry W. Bannarn, Eloise Bishop, Betty Blayton, Selma H. Burke, E. Simms Campbell, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Charles C. Dawson, Avel DeKnight, Joseph Delaney, William McKnight Farrow, Fred C. Flemister, Allan R. Freelon, Reginald Gammon, William Giles (?), Rex Gorleigh, Stephen Greene (white artist?), Edward A. Harleston, Palmer Hayden, Felrath Hines, Al Hollingsworth, Sargent C. Johnson, William H. Johnson, Ben Jones, Henry B. Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Larry Lewis, Norman Lewis, Tom Lloyd, Edward L. Loper, Leon Meeks, Archibald Motley, Marion Perkins, James A. Porter, Elizabeth Prophet, William Edouard Scott, Charles Sebree, Thelma Johnson Streat, James L. Wells, Jack White and John Wilson. Scipio Moorhead and Malcolm Bailey mentioned in passing. Large stout 4to, cloth. (First revised enlarged edition. (Previously pub. as Negro Almanac). PLOSKI, HARRY A., ed. The Negro Almanac: A Reference Work on the Afro-American. New York: A Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1983. 1550 pp. Includes essay on The Black Artist. Gylbert Coker cited as art consultant. Many misspellings. Artists mentioned include: Scipio Moorhead, James Porter, Eugene Warburg, Robert Duncanson, William H. Simpson, Edward M. Bannister, Joshua Johnston, Robert Douglass, David Bowser, Edmonia Lewis, Henry O. Tanner, William Harper, Dorothy Fannin, Meta Fuller, Archibald Motley, Palmer Hayden. Malvin Gray Johnson, Laura Waring, William E. Scott, Hughie Lee-Smith, Zell Ingram, Charles Sallee, Elmer Brown, William E. Smith, George Hulsinger, James Herring, Aaron Douglas, Augusta Savage, Charles Alston, Hale Woodruff, Charles White, Richmond Barthé, Malvin Gray Johnson, Henry Bannarn, Florence Purviance, Dox Thrash, Robert Blackburn, James Denmark, Dindga McCannon, Frank Wimberly, Ann Tanksley, Don Robertson, Lloyd Toones, Lois Jones, Jo Butler, Robert Threadgill, Faith Ringgold, Romare Bearden, Ernest Crichlow, Norman Lewis, Jimmy Mosley, Samella Lewis, F. L. Spellmon, Phillip Hampton, Venola Seals Jennings, Juanita Moulon, Eugene Jesse Brown, Hayward Oubré, Ademola Olugebefola, Otto Neals, Kay Brown, Jean Taylor, Genesis II, David Hammons, Senga Nengudi, Randy Williams, Howardena Pindell, Edward Spriggs, Beauford Delaney, James Vanderzee, Melvin Edwards, Vincent Smith, Alonzo Davis, Dale Davis, Margaret Burroughs, Elizabeth Catlett, Gordon Parks, Rex Goreleigh, William McBride, Jr., Eldzier Cortor, James Gittens, Joan Maynard. Kynaston McShine, Coker, Cheryl McClenney, Faith Weaver, Randy Williams, Florence Hardney, Dolores Wright, Cathy Chance, Lowery Sims, Richard Hunt, Roland Ayers, Frank Bowling, Marvin Brown, Walter Cade, Catti, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Manuel Hughes, Barkley Hendricks, Juan Logan, Alvin Loving, Tom Lloyd, Lloyd McNeill, Algernon Miller, Norma Morgan, Mavis Pusey, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, Thomas Sills, Thelma Johnson Streat, Alma Thomas, John Torres, Todd Williams, Mahler Ryder, Minnie Evans, Jacob Lawrence, Haywood Rivers, Edward Clark, Camille Billops, Joe Overstreet, Louise Parks, Herbert Gentry, William Edmondson, James Parks, Marion Perkins, Bernard Goss, Reginald Gammon, Emma Amos, Charles Alston, Richard Mayhew, Al Hollingsworth, Calvin Douglass, Merton Simpson, Earl Miller, Felrath Hines, Perry Ferguson, William Majors, James Yeargans. Ruth Waddy; Evangeline Montgomery, Jeff Donaldson, Wadsworth Jarrell, Gerald Williams, Carolyn Lawrence, Barbara Jones-Hogu, Frank Smith, Howard Mallory, Napoleon Jones-Henderson, Nelson Stevens, Vivian Browne, Kay Brown, William Harper, Isaac Hathaway, Julien Hudson, May Howard Jackson, Edmonia Lewis, Patrick Reason, William Simpson, A. B. Wilson, William Braxton, Allan Crite, Alice Gafford, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, William Artis, John Biggers, William Carter, Joseph Delaney, Elton Fax, Frederick Flemister, Ronald Joseph, Horace Pippin, Charles Sebree, Bill Traylor, Ellis Wilson, John Wilson, Starmanda Bullock, Dana Chandler, Raven Chanticleer, Roy DeCarava, John Dowell, Sam Gilliam, David Hammons, Daniel Johnson, Geraldine McCullough, Earl Miller, Clarence Morgan, Norma Morgan, Skunder Boghossian, Bob Thompson, Clifton Webb, Jack Whitten. 4to, cloth. 4th ed. PORTER, JAMES A. Modern Negro Art. New York: Dryden Press, 1943. 200 pp. text and indices, bibliog, index of names, plus 76 pp. illus. (4 colorplates.) Foundation reference work from which many others still take their information. Includes: John Henry Adams, Jr., Charles Alston, William E. Artis, Henry A. Avery, Henry (Mike) Bannarn, Edward Mitchell Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Gwendolyn Bennett, Edmund Bereal, Bob Blackburn, Leslie G. Bolling, David Bustill Bowser, William Ernest Braxton, Elmer Brown, Hilda Brown (also listed as Hilda Wilkerson), Richard L. Brown, Samuel J. Brown, Selma Burke, John P. Burr, E. Simms Campbell, John Carlis, Jr., Fred Carlo, William S. Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, John G. Chaplin, Samuel O. Collins, William Arthur Cooper, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Allan Rohan Crite, Robert Crump, Charles Davis, Thomas Day, Charles C. Davis, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Elba Lightfoot DeReyes, Joseph C. DeVillis, Frank J. Dillon, Aaron Douglas, Robert S. Duncanson, William Edmondson, William M. Farrow, Slave of Thomas Fleet, Frederick C. Flemister, B.E. Fountaine (as Fontaine), Allan Freelon, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, John W. Gore, Rex Goreleigh, Bernard Goss, Henry Gudgell, John Hailstalk, Clark Hampton, John W. Hardrick, John T. Hailstalk, Edwin A. Harleston, William A. Harper, Oliver Harrington (as Henry), Marcellus Hawkins, Palmer Hayden, Vertis Hayes, James V. Herring, G. W. Hobbs (now known to have been a white artist), Charles F. Holland, Fred Hollingsworth, Julien Hudson, George Hulsinger, Thomas W. Hunster, Sterling V. Hykes, Zell Ingram, John Spencer Jackson, May Howard Jackson, Wilmer Jennings, Everett Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Allen Jones, Henry B. Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Ronald Joseph, Joseph Kersey, Jacob Lawrence, Clarence Lawson, Bertina Lee, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Robert H. Lewis, Gerrit Loguen, Edward Loper, Scipio Moorhead, Lenwood Morris, Lottie E. Moss, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., George E. Neal, Robert L. Neal, Alexandre Pickhil, Horace Pippin, Georgette Seabrooke Powell, Pauline Powell, Nelson A. Primus, Elizabeth Prophet, Patrick Reason, Earle W. Richardson, William Ross, Winfred Russell, Charles L. Sallee, Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Charles Sebree, William Simpson, Albert A. Smith, William E. Smith, Ella Spencer, Teresa Staats, Edward Stidum, Curtis E. Tann, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Dox Thrash, W.O. Thompson, Neptune Thurston, Thurmond Townsend, Vidal, Earl Walker, Daniel Warburg, Eugene Warburg, Laura Wheeler Waring, James Lesesne Wells, Aedina White, Charles White, James Williams, A.B. Wilson, Hale Woodruff. [Reprinted in 1969 with a new preface by Porter; and in 1992 in an important scholarly edition by Howard University Press with new introduction by David Driskell, a James A. Porter chronology by Constance Porter Uzelac, and including the prefaces to all prior editions.] 8vo, wraps. Reprint ed. POWELL, RICHARD. African American Art. 2005. Entry in AFRICANA: The Encyclopeida of the African and African American Experience (Ed. Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Kwame Anthony Appiah. Oxford University Press; April 2005.) Includes mention of: Scipio Moorhead, Joshua Johnson, Patrick Reason, William Simpson, Robert Douglass, Daniel and Eugene Warburg, Edmonia Lewis, Robert S. Duncanson, Edward M. Bannister, William Harper, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Harriet Powers, Edwin A. Harleston, Isaac Scott Hathaway, May Howard Jackson, John Henry Adams, Jr., Meta Warrick Fuller, Palmer C. Hayden, Malvin Gray Johnson, Laura Wheeler Waring, Richmond Barthé, Sargent Johnson, Augusta Savage, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Allan Rohan Crite, Ernest Crichlow, Dox Thrash, William Edmondson, Jacob Lawrence, Horace Pippin, William H. Johnson, Charles Sebree, Eldzier Cortor, Hughie-Lee Smith, Charles White, Minnie Evans, James Hampton, Bob Thompson, Romare Bearden, Murry N. DePillars, Ben Jones, Dana Chandler, Jeff Donaldson, Lois Mailou Jones, John T. Biggers, Elizabeth Catlett, Frank Bowling, Sam Gilliam, Richard Hunt, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Raymond Saunders, Alma Thomas, Al Loving, Ed Clark, Joe Overstreet, Jack Whitten, William T. Williams, Clementine Hunter, Sister Gertrude Morgan, Barkley L. Hendricks, Ernie Barnes, Benny Andrews, Betye Saar, (David Driskell, Samella Lewis and Ruth Waddy - as curators), David Hammons, Robert Colescott, Houston Conwill, Alison Saar, Renée Stout, Albert Chong, Lyle Ashton Harris, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Glenn Ligon, Lorna Simpson, Dawoud Bey, Renée Cox, Lorraine O'Grady, Kerry James Marshall, Howardena Pindell, Gary Simmons, Kara Walker, and Fred Wilson. POWELL, RICHARD J. Black Art and Culture in the 20th Century. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997. 256 pp., 176 illus. (including 31 in color), biog. notes, list of illus., bibliog. 8vo, cloth, d.j. First ed. POWELL, RICHARD J. Black Art: A Cultural History. London: Thames & Hudson, 2002. 272 pp., 192 illus. including 39 in color, biog. notes, list of illus., index. Revised and slightly enlarged from 1997 edition. 8vo, wraps. Second Revised ed. RAMPERSAD, ARNOLD. The Life of Langston Hughes. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986, 1988. Vol. 1. 1902-1941: I, Too, Sing America. Includes mention of 7 visual artists: Richmond Barthé, Gwendolyn Bennett, E. Simms Campbell, George Washington Carver, Aaron Douglas, Zell Ingram, and Augusta Savage; Vol. II. 1941-1967. I Dream a World. Includes: Richmond Barthé, E. Simms Campbell, George Washington Carver, Elizabeth Catlett, Roy DeCarava, Aaron Douglas, Margaret Taylor Goss Burroughs, Eugene Grigsby, Ollie Harrington, Geoffrey Holder, Zell Ingram, Ted Joans, Jacob Lawrence, Charles White, and Hale Woodruff REED, CHRISTOPHER. Art and Homosexuality: A History of Ideas. London: Oxford University Press, 2011. 304 pp., illus. No noteworthy notice is taken of the substantial contributions by gay and lesbian artists of African descent. Includes: Richmond Barthe, Edmonia Lewis, Isaac Julien, Rotimi Fani-Kayode, Lyle Ashton Harris. 8vo, cloth, d.j. First ed. REYNOLDS, GARY A. and BERYL J. WRIGHT. Against the Odds: African American Artists and the Harmon Foundation. Newark: The Newark Museum, 1989. 298 pp., 129 illus., 28 in color, plus photos of all artists, exhib. Checklist of 130 works, Harmon Foundation exhib. records and awards, bibliog., index. A major reference catalogue with eight important scholarly texts by David Driskell, Gary A. Reynolds, Richard J. Powell, Deborah Willis, and Beryl J. Wright. Artists include: James Latimer Allen, William Ellisworth Artis, Richmond Barthé, Leslie Garland Bolling, Samuel Joseph Brown, Jr., Allan Rohan Crite, Charles Clarence Dawson, Beauford Delaney, Frank Joseph Dillon, William McKnight Farrow, Allan Randall Freelon, King Daniel Ganaway; Edwin Augustus Harleston, Palmer Hayden, Wilmer Angier Jennings, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Claude Johnson, William Henry Johnson, Henry Bozeman Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Archibald John Motley Jr., Edgar Eugene Phipps, Robert Savon Pious, James Amos Porter, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Augusta Savage, William Edouard Scott, Albert Alexander Smith, James Lesesne Wells, Ellis Wilson, Hale Aspacio Woodruff. 4to (29 x 23 cm.), cloth, dust jacket. First ed. RICHARDSON, BEN. Great American Negoes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1956. 339 pp., illustrated by Robert Hallock. Biographies of 26 African Americans who made significant contributions to American life. Includes several visual artists: Richmond Barthé and Jacob Lawrence. [Originally published in 1945; revised in 1956 with substantial additions by William Fahey; subsequent second revised edition published in 1976 under title: Great Black Americans includes five additional biographies.] 8vo (21 cm.), cloth, d.j. Revised ed. RICHMOND (VA). Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. Making History: Twentieth Century African American Art. March 31-June 10, 2012. 24 pp. exhib. cat., illus. Group exhibition of more than 50 paintings, sculptures, and works on paper by 23 artists associated with the Barnett Aden Gallery, operating in Washington, D.C., from 1943 to 1969. Included: Richmond Barthé, Elizabeth Catlett ("I Am the Negro Woman" linocut series, 1946-1947) David C. Driskell, John Farrar, Norman Lewis, Lloyd McNeill, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Hale Woodruff, et al. RIGGS, THOMAS, ed. St. James Guide to Black Artists. Detroit: St. James Press, 1997. xxiv, 625 pp., illus. A highly selective reference work listing only approximately 400 artists of African descent worldwide (including around 300 African American artists, approximately 20% women artists.) Illus. of work or photos of many artists, brief descriptive texts by well-known scholars, with selected list of exhibitions for each, plus many artists' statements. A noticeable absence of many artists under 45, most photographers, and many women artists. Far fewer artists listed here than in Igoe, Cederholm, or other sources. Stout 4to (29 cm.), laminated yellow papered boards. First ed. ROCKFORD (IL). Rockford Art Museum. An Inside View: Highlights from the Howard University Collection. February 7-April 19, 2003. Exhib. cat., illus., checklist of 90 works, paintings, sculptures, prints and drawings, dating from 1839 to 1996. Text by Floyd Coleman. Artists included: William Artis, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Skunder Boghossian, Elizabeth Catlett, Claude Clark, Eldzier Cortor, David Driskell, Aaron Douglas, Robert Duncanson, Meta Warrick Fuller, Sam Gilliam, Felrath Hines, Humbert Howard, Wadsworth Jarrell, Wilmer Jennings, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Wifredo Lam, Jacob Lawrence, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Ed Love, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Faith Ringgold, Augusta Savage, Charles Searles, Albert A. Smith, Alvin Smith, William E. Smith, Nelson Stevens, Lou Stovall, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Dox Thrash, Laura Wheeler Waring, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Hale Woodruff. ROUSSEVE, CHARLES BARTHELEMY. The Negro in Louisiana. New Orleans: Xavier University Press, 1937. Frontispiece illus. of slave-wrought iron gate at Spanish Cabildo, New Orleans; slave-made altar rail doors, St. Louis Cathedral, illus. (opp p. 30). Artists mentioned include: Eugene Warburg and Richmond Barthé. 8vo, cloth. SALZMAN, JACK, CORNEL WEST and DAVID LIONEL SMITH, eds. Encyclopedia of African American Culture and History. University of Michigan, 1996. 3203 pp. SAN FRANCISCO (CA). Fine Arts Gallery, San Francisco State University. Black Power, Black Art...and the struggle continues: political imagery from the Black Arts Movement of the 1960s and 1970s. September 19-October 21, 1994. 6 color thumbnail illus., b&w raised fist logo on cover, list of artists with biog notes, prograam schedule, brief bibliog. introduction, essay. Project Director: Joe Louis Moore. Curated by Samella Lewis and Mary Jane Hewitt. Artists included: Benny Andrews, Kofi Bailey, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Bob Black, David Bradford, Elizabeth Catlett, Dana Chandler, Floyd Coleman, Dewey Crumpler, Murray DePillars, Emory Douglas, Melvin Edwards, Malaika Favorite, Hal Franklin, Claude Fiddler, Reginald Gammon, Ron Griffin, David Hammons, Ben Hazard, Mike Henderson, Barbara Hogu-Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Artis Lane, Jacob Lawrence, Samella Lewis, Philip Mason, Joe Moore, Howardena Pindell, Faith Ringgold, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, Clarissa Sligh, Ruth Waddy, William Walker, Charles White. [Review: Bruce Nixon, "Aftershock. Black Power/Black Art at San Francisco State University," Artweek 25 (Oct. 20, 1994):16.] 10-panel folded brochure, 12.25 x 3.75 in., wraps. SAN FRANCISCO (CA). Museum of the African Diaspora (MOAD). The Kinsey Collection: Shared Treasures of Bernard and Shirley Kinsey, Where Art and History Intersect. February 8-May 19, 2013. Group exhibition. Included: Richmond Barthé, Artis Lane, Romare Bearden, Jacob Lawrence, Elizabeth Catlett, Richard Mayhew, Samuel L. Dunson Jr., Henry Ossawa Tanner, Lois Mailou Jones. SANCONIE, MAICA. African American Visual Artists in France: A Panorama, 1980-2008. 2009. In: Transatlantica revue d'etudes americaines 1 (2009). [mis en ligne le 20 juillet 2009, Consulté le 10 octobre 2011. URL: http://transatlantica.revues.org/4275] A very brief outline of 20 American artists who spent time working in Paris or whose work was exhibited there. Interesting excerpts from French press reviews. SAVANNAH (GA). Beach Institute, King-Tisdell Cottage Foundation. Walter O. Evans Collection of African American Art. February 1-May 3, 1991. 93 pp., 47 color plates and 8 b&w illus. (nearly all full-page), plus 5 text photos of the Evans family, bibliog., exhib. checklist, brief biogs. of artists. [Not to be confused with the 1999 publication by the same title.] Foreword by Les Payne; texts by Leslie King-Hammond, Barbara A. Hudson, Selden Rodman, Shirley Woodson. Curated by Shirley Woodson. A major collection with works by: Herman Kofi Bailey, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Wilson Bigaud, Margaret Burroughs, William S. Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Irene Clark, Aaron Douglas, Gervais Ducasse, Eugene James Martin, Bob Thompson, Michael Kelly Williams, et al. 4to (28 cm.), wraps. First ed. SAVANNAH (GA). Museum of Art, Savannah College of Art & Design [SCAD]. Rehearsals: The Practice and Influence of Sound and Movement. April 12-September 9, 2013. Group exhibition of works from the Walter O. Evans Collection in dialogue with selected contemporary works that explore themes of sound, movement, practice and process. Included: John Bankston, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Sanford Biggers, Los Carpinteros, Beauford Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Satch Hoyt, Clementine Hunter, Jennie C. Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Rashaad Newsome, Xaviera Simmons and Alma Thomas. SAVANNAH (GA). Savannah College of Art & Design [SCAD]. Pose/Re-pose: Figurative Works, Then and Now. July 23-November 18, 2012. Group exhibition. Included: Charles Alston, Radcliffe Bailey, Richmond Barthé, Margaret Burroughs, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Aaron Douglas, Robert S. Duncanson, Edwin A. Harleston, Clementine Hunter, Titus Kaphar, Simone Leigh, Wardell Milan II, Youssef Nabil, Marion Perkins, Lynette Yiadom-Boakye. SIRMANS, MEREDITH. Collecting the Work of Black Artists. 1985. In: Black American Literature Forum 19, No. 1, Contemporary Black Visual Artists Issue. (Spring 1985):40-41. SMALLS, JAMES. The Homoerotic Photography of Carl Van Vechten: Public Face, Private Thoughts. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2006. 240 pp., b&w illus., index. Detailed analysis of Van Vechten's photographs of black and interracial images, as well as a broad discussion of homoerotic culture in Harlem and Euro-American culture generally during the Harlem Renaissance and after. Mentions: Ajamu, Richmond Barthé, Rotimi Fani-Kayode, Lyle Ashton Harris, Glenn Ligon, Richard Nugent, 4to (10 x 7.3 in.), cloth, d.j. SPRADLING, MARY MACE. In Black and White: Afro-Americans in Print. Kalamazoo: Kalamazoo Public Library, 1980. 2 vols. 1089 pp. Includes: John H. Adams, Ron Adams, Alonzo Aden, Muhammad Ali, Baba Alabi Alinya, Charles Alston, Charlotte Amevor, Benny Andrews, Ralph Arnold, William Artis, Ellsworth Ausby, Jacqueline Ayer, Calvin Bailey, Jene Ballentine, Casper Banjo, Henry Bannarn, Edward Bannister, Dutreuil Barjon, Ernie Barnes, Carolyn Plaskett Barrow, Richmond Barthé, Beatrice Bassette, Ad Bates, Romare Bearden, Phoebe Beasley, Roberta Bell, Cleveland Bellow, Ed Bereal, Arthur Berry, DeVoice Berry, Cynthia Bethune, Charles Bible, John Biggers, Camille Billops, Bob Blackburn, Irving Blaney, Bessie Blount, Gloria Bohanon, Leslie Bolling, Shirley Bolton, Charles Bonner, Michael Borders, John Borican, Earl Bostic, Augustus Bowen, David Bowser, David Bradford, Edward Brandford, Brumsic Brandon, William Braxton, Arthur Britt Sr., Benjamin Britt, Sylvester Britton, Elmer Brown, Fred Brown, Kay Brown, Margery Brown, Richard L. Brown, Samuel Brown, Vivian E. Browne, Henry Brownlee, Linda Bryant, Starmanda Bullock, Juana Burke, Selma Burke, Eugene Burkes, Viola Burley, Calvin Burnett, John Burr, Margaret Burroughs, Nathaniel Bustion, Sheryle Butler, Elmer Simms Campbell, Thomas Cannon, Nick Canyon, Edward Carr, Art Carraway, Ted Carroll, Joseph S. Carter, William Carter, Catti, George Washington Carver, Yvonne Catchings, Elizabeth Catlett, Mitchell Caton, Dana Chandler, Kitty Chavis, George Clack, Claude Clark, Ed Clark, J. Henrik Clarke, Leroy Clarke, Ladybird Cleveland, Floyd Coleman, Donald Coles, Margaret Collins, Paul Collins, Sam Collins, Dan Concholar, Arthur Coppedge, Wallace X. Conway, Leonard Cooper, William A. Cooper, Art Coppedge, Eldzier Cortor, Samuel Countee, Harold Cousins, William Craft, Cleo Crawford, Marva Cremer, Ernest Crichlow, Allan Crite, Jerrolyn Crooks, Harvey Cropper, Doris Crudup, Robert Crump, Dewey Crumpler, Frank E. Cummings, William Curtis, Mary Reed Daniel, Alonzo Davis, Charles Davis, Willis "Bing" Davis, Dale Davis, Charles C. Dawson, Juette Day, Thomas Day, Roy DeCarava, Paul DeCroom, Avel DeKnight, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Richard Dempsey, Murry DePillars, Robert D'Hue, Kenneth Dickerson, Leo Dillon, Raymond Dobard, Vernon Dobard, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, Emory Douglas, Robert Douglass, Glanton Dowdell, David Driskell, Yolande Du Bois, Robert Duncanson, Eugenia Dunn, John Dunn, Adolphus Ealey, Eugene Eda, Melvin Edwards, Gaye Elliington, Annette Ensley, Marion Epting, Minnie Evans, Frederick Eversley, James Fairfax, Kenneth Falana, Allen Fannin, John Farrar, William Farrow, Elton Fax, Muriel Feelings, Tom Feelings, Frederick Flemister, Mikelle Fletcher, Curt Flood, Thomas Floyd, Doyle Foreman, Mozelle Forte (costume and fabric designer), Amos Fortune, Mrs. C.R. Foster, Inez Fourcard (as Fourchard), John Francis, Miriam Francis, Allan Freelon, Meta Warrick Fuller, Stephany Fuller, Gale Fulton-Ross, Ibibio Fundi, Alice Gafford, Otis Galbreath, West Gale, Reginald Gammon, Jim Gary, Herbert Gentry, Joseph Geran, Jimmy Gibbez, Sam Gilliam, Robert Glover, Manuel Gomez, Russell Gordon, Rex Goreleigh, Bernard Goss, Samuel Green, William Green, Donald Greene, Joseph Grey, Ron Griffin, Eugene Grigsby, Henry Gudgell, Charles Haines, Clifford Hall, Horathel Hall, Wesley Hall, David Hammons, James Hampton, Phillip Hampton, Lorraine Hansberry, Marvin Harden, Arthur Hardie, Inge Hardison, John Hardrick, Edwin Harleston, William A. Harper, Gilbert Harris, John Harris, Maren Hassinger, Isaac Hathaway, Frank Hayden, Kitty Hayden, Palmer Hayden, Vertis Hayes, Wilbur Haynie, Dion Henderson, Ernest Herbert, Leon Hicks, Hector Hill, Tony Hill, Geoffrey Holder, Al Hollingsworth, Varnette Honeywood, Earl Hooks, Humbert Howard, James Howard, Raymond Howell, Julien Hudson, Manuel Hughes, Margo Humphrey, Thomas Hunster, Richard Hunt, Clementine Hunter, Norman Hunter, Orville Hurt, Bill Hutson, Nell Ingram, Tanya Izanhour, Ambrose Jackson, Earl Jackson, May Jackson, Nigel Jackson, Suzanne Jackson, Walter Jackson, Louise Jefferson, Ted Joans, Daniel Johnson, Lester L. Johnson, Jr., Malvin Gray Johnson, Marie Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Barbara Jones, Ben Jones, Calvin Jones, Frederick D. Jones Jr., James Arlington Jones, Lawrence Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Eddie Jack Jordan, Ronald Joseph, Lemuel Joyner, Paul Keene, Elyse J. Kennart, Joseph Kersey, Gwendolyn Knight, Lawrence Compton Kolawole, Oliver LaGrone, Artis Lane, Doyle Lane, Raymond Lark, Lewis H. Latimer, Jacob Lawrence, Clarence Lawson, Bertina Lee, Joanna Lee, Peter Lee, Hughie Lee-Smith, Leon Leonard, Curtis Lewis, Edmonia Lewis, James Edward Lewis, Norman Lewis, Samella Lewis, Charles Lilly, Henri Linton, Jules Lion, Romeyn Lippman, Tom Lloyd, Jon Lockard, Juan Logan, Willie Longshore, Ed Loper, Ed Love, Al Loving, Geraldine McCullough, Lawrence McGaugh, Charles McGee, Donald McIlvaine, James McMillan, William McNeil, Lloyd McNeill, David Mann, William Marshall, Helen Mason, Philip Mason, Winifred Mason, Calvin Massey, Lester (Nathan) Mathews, William Maxwell, Richard Mayhew, Valerie Maynard, Yvonne Meo, Sam Middleton, Onnie Millar, Aaron Miller, Eva Miller, Lev Mills, P'lla Mills, Evangeline J. Montgomery, Arthur Monroe, Frank Moore, Ron Moore, Scipio Moorhead, Norma Morgan, Ken Morris, Calvin Morrison, Jimmie Mosely, Leo Moss, Lottie Moss, Archibald Motley, Hugh Mulzac, Frank Neal, George Neal, Otto Neals, Shirley Nero, Effie Newsome, Nommo, George Norman, Georg Olden, Ademola Olugebefola, Conora O'Neal (fashion designer), Cora O'Neal, Lula O'Neal, Pearl O'Neal, Ron O'Neal, Hayward Oubré, John Outterbridge, Carl Owens, Lorenzo Pace, Alvin Paige, Robert Paige, William Pajaud, Denise Palm, Norman Parish, Jules Parker, James Parks, Edgar Patience, Angela Perkins, Marion Perkins, Michael Perry, Jacqueline Peters, Douglas Phillips, Harper Phillips, Delilah Pierce, Howardena Pindell, Horace Pippin, Julie Ponceau, James Porter, Leslie Price, Ramon Price, Nelson Primus, Nancy Prophet, Noah Purifoy, Teodoro Ramos Blanco y Penita, Otis Rathel, Patrick Reason, William Reid, John Rhoden, Barbara Chase-Riboud, William Richmond, Percy Ricks, Gary Rickson, John Riddle, Gregory Ridley, Faith Ringgold, Malkia Roberts, Brenda Rogers, Charles Rogers, George Rogers, Arthur Rose, Nancy Rowland, Winfred Russell, Mahler Ryder, Betye Saar, Charles Sallee, Marion Sampler, John Sanders, Walter Sanford, Raymond Saunders, Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Charles Sebree, Thomas Sills, Carroll Simms, Jewel Simon, Walter Simon, Merton Simpson, William H. Simpson, Louis Slaughter, Gwen Small, Albert A. Smith, Alvin Smith, Hughie Lee-Smith, John Henry Smith, Jacob Lawrence, John Steptoe, Nelson Stevens, Edward Stidum, Elmer C. Stoner, Lou Stovall, Henry O. Tanner, Ralph Tate, Betty Blayton Taylor, Della Taylor, Bernita Temple, Herbert Temple, Alma Thomas, Elaine Thomas, Larry Thomas, Carolyn Thompson, Lovett Thompson, Mildred Thompson, Mozelle Thompson, Robert (Bob) Thompson, Dox Thrash, Neptune Thurston, John Torres, Nat Turner, Leo Twiggs, Bernard Upshur, Royce Vaughn, Ruth Waddy, Anthony Walker, Earl Walker, Larry Walker, William Walker, Daniel Warburg, Eugene Warburg, Carole Ward, Laura Waring, Mary P. Washington, James Watkins, Lawrence Watson, Edward Webster, Allen A. Weeks, Robert Weil, James Wells, Pheoris West, Sarah West, John Weston, Delores Wharton, Amos White, Charles White, Garrett Whyte, Alfredus Williams, Chester Williams, Douglas R. Williams, Laura Williams, Matthew Williams, Morris Williams, Peter Williams, Rosetta Williams (as Rosita), Walter Williams, William T. Williams, Ed Wilson, Ellis Wilson, Fred Wilson, John Wilson, Stanley Wilson, Vincent Wilson, Hale Woodruff, Bernard Wright, Charles Young, Kenneth Young, Milton Young. [Note the 3rd edition consists of two volumes published by Gale Research in 1980, with a third supplemental volume issued in 1985.] Large stout 4tos, red cloth. 3rd revised expanded edition. ST LOUIS (MO). St. Louis Public Library. An index to Black American artists. St. Louis: St. Louis Public Library, 1972. 50 pp. Also includes art historians such as Henri Ghent. In this database, only artists are cross-referenced. 4to (28 cm.) SUMMERS, CLAUDE J., ed. The Queer Encyclopedia of the Visual Arts. San Francisco: Clais Press, 2004. 384 pp., illus., index, bibliogs. Includes: brief articles by Carla Williams "African-American and African Diaspora Art," "Fani-Kayode, Rotimi." The sections on African American gay male and lesbian artists includes: Marlon Riggs, Lyle Ashton Harris, Thomas Allen Harris, Glenn Ligon, Darrel Ellis, Christian Walker; Mikki Ferrill, Jean Weisinger; British photographers Jo Spence and Rosy Martin. filmmakers Marlon Riggs, Isaac Julien, Steve McQueen, Jocelyn Taylor, Cheryl Dunye, Yvonne Welbon, and a half-dozen others. 4to (10.9 x 8.3 in.), wraps. TAHA, HALIMA. Collecting African American Art: Works on Paper and Canvas. New York: Crown, 1998. xvi, 270 pp., approx. 150 color plates, brief bibliog., index, appendices of art and photo dealers, museums and other resources. Intro. by Ntozake Shange. Forewords by Dierdre Bibby and Samella Lewis. Text consists of a few sentences at best on most of the hundreds of listed artists. Numerous typos and other errors and misinformation throughout. 4to (29 cm.), laminated papered boards, d.j. THOMAS, JESSE O. Negro Participation in the Texas Centennial Exposition. Boston: The Christopher Publishing House, 1938. 154 pp., illus., appendix. The text includes: Alonzo Aden's description of the four murals by Aaron Douglas created for the lobby of the Hall of Negro Life (b&w illus.). Fine Arts was one of the six major classifications in the exhibition, and included all media, listing 179 exhibits in painting, drawing, sketching, graphic arts and sculpture. "Most of the art was supplied by the Harmon Foundation and selected by four eminent judges." A booklet supplying biographical sketches of the artists was distributed. A booth containing handicraft included needlework, an inlaid table top by R. A. Johnson of Richmond, VA, two Lone Star quilts, and a screen by Miss Hallie Queen of Washington, D.C. on which were collaged dozens of autographed photographs of famous African Americans. Another section included photographs of the buildings designed by architect Paul R. Williams, including homes designed for Corinne Griffith, Lon Chaney and Yehudi Menuhin. The review of the art section by Claude Telford (released by the Associated Press, September 10, 1936) is quoted in full (pp. 100-101. It mentions in particular the inclusion of Richmond Barthe's "Blackberry Woman," a portrait in oil by Hilda Wilkinson Brown, William Arthur Cooper's self-portrait in oil, Samuel Countee's painting "My Guitar," wood carvings by P.W. Dawkins, the entry murals and two additional paintings by Aaron Douglas, a sculpture of a baby by Sargent Johnson, a portrait by Laura Wheeler Waring, 3 etchings by Allan A. Freelon, 1 by Albert A. Smith, and block prints by James Lesesne Wells, b&w illus. of installation, p. 111. Also included is the long and detailed art review by Richard Foster Howard, Director of the Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, published in the Dallas Times-Herald, September 6, 1936 (pp. 110-113. Howard singles out and praises work by Malvin Grey Johnson, Sam Brown, Richmond Barthe, Winfred J. Russell, Hale Woodruff, James Lesesne Wells, Samuel Albert Countee, Albert A. Smith, Laura Wheeler Waring, Palmer Hayden, J.H.D. Robinson, Tobert Savon Pious, William A. Cooper, photographs by James L. Allen and woodcarvings by Leslie Bolling; remarking in conclusion: "There is very little to distinguish these pictures and pieces of sculpture from the work of other Americans." [See digital online copy: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=wu.89058632233;view=1up;seq=15] 8vo, cloth. THOMISON, DENNIS. The Black Artist in America: An Index to Reproductions. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1991. Includes: index to Black artists, bibliography (including doctoral dissertations and audiovisual materials.) Many of the dozens of spelling errors and incomplete names have been corrected in this entry and names of known white artists omitted from our entry, but errors may still exist in this entry, so beware: Jesse Aaron, Charles Abramson, Maria Adair, Lauren Adam, Ovid P. Adams, Ron Adams, Terry Adkins, (Jonathan) Ta Coumba T. Aiken, Jacques Akins, Lawrence E. Alexander, Tina Allen, Pauline Alley-Barnes, Charles Alston, Frank Alston, Charlotte Amevor, Emma Amos (Levine), Allie Anderson, Benny Andrews, Edmund Minor Archer, Pastor Argudin y Pedroso [as Y. Pedroso Argudin], Anna Arnold, Ralph Arnold, William Artis, Kwasi Seitu Asante [as Kwai Seitu Asantey], Steve Ashby, Rose Auld, Ellsworth Ausby, Henry Avery, Charles Axt, Roland Ayers, Annabelle Bacot, Calvin Bailey, Herman Kofi Bailey, Malcolm Bailey, Annabelle Baker, E. Loretta Ballard, Jene Ballentine, Casper Banjo, Bill Banks, Ellen Banks, John W. Banks, Henry Bannarn, Edward Bannister, Curtis R. Barnes, Ernie Barnes, James MacDonald Barnsley, Richmond Barthé, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Daniel Carter Beard, Romare Bearden, Phoebe Beasley, Falcon Beazer, Arthello Beck, Sherman Beck, Cleveland Bellow, Gwendolyn Bennett, Herbert Bennett, Ed Bereal, Arthur Berry, Devoice Berry, Ben Bey, John Biggers, Camille Billops, Willie Birch, Eloise Bishop, Robert Blackburn, Tarleton Blackwell, Lamont K. Bland, Betty Blayton, Gloria Bohanon, Hawkins Bolden, Leslie Bolling, Shirley Bolton, Higgins Bond, Erma Booker, Michael Borders, Ronald Boutte, Siras Bowens, Lynn Bowers, Frank Bowling, David Bustill Bowser, David Patterson Boyd, David Bradford, Harold Bradford, Peter Bradley, Fred Bragg, Winston Branch, Brumsic Brandon, James Brantley, William Braxton, Bruce Brice, Arthur Britt, James Britton, Sylvester Britton, Moe Brooker, Bernard Brooks, Mable Brooks, Oraston Brooks-el, David Scott Brown, Elmer Brown, Fred Brown, Frederick Brown, Grafton Brown, James Andrew Brown, Joshua Brown, Kay Brown, Marvin Brown, Richard Brown, Samuel Brown, Vivian Browne, Henry Brownlee, Beverly Buchanan, Selma Burke, Arlene Burke-Morgan, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Burroughs, Cecil Burton, Charles Burwell, Nathaniel Bustion, David Butler, Carole Byard, Albert Byrd, Walter Cade, Joyce Cadoo, Bernard Cameron, Simms Campbell, Frederick Campbell, Thomas Cannon (as Canon), Nicholas Canyon, John Carlis, Arthur Carraway, Albert Carter, Allen Carter, George Carter, Grant Carter, Ivy Carter, Keithen Carter, Robert Carter, William Carter, Yvonne Carter, George Washington Carver, Bernard Casey, Yvonne Catchings, Elizabeth Catlett, Frances Catlett, Mitchell Caton, Catti, Charlotte Chambless, Dana Chandler, John Chandler, Robin Chandler, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Kitty Chavis, Edward Christmas, Petra Cintron, George Clack, Claude Clark Sr., Claude Lockhart Clark, Edward Clark, Irene Clark, LeRoy Clarke, Pauline Clay, Denise Cobb, Gylbert Coker, Marion Elizabeth Cole, Archie Coleman, Floyd Coleman, Donald Coles, Robert Colescott, Carolyn Collins, Paul Collins, Richard Collins, Samuel Collins, Don Concholar, Wallace Conway, Houston Conwill, William A. Cooper, Arthur Coppedge, Jean Cornwell, Eldzier Cortor, Samuel Countee, Harold Cousins, Cleo Crawford, Marva Cremer, Ernest Crichlow, Norma Criss, Allan Rohan Crite, Harvey Cropper, Geraldine Crossland, Rushie Croxton, Doris Crudup, Dewey Crumpler, Emilio Cruz, Charles Cullen (White artist), Vince Cullers, Michael Cummings, Urania Cummings, DeVon Cunningham, Samuel Curtis, William Curtis, Artis Dameron, Mary Reed Daniel, Aaron Darling, Alonzo Davis, Bing Davis, Charles Davis, Dale Davis, Rachel Davis, Theresa Davis, Ulysses Davis, Walter Lewis Davis, Charles C. Davis, William Dawson, Juette Day, Roy DeCarava, Avel DeKnight, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Nadine Delawrence, Louis Delsarte, Richard Dempsey, J. Brooks Dendy, III (as Brooks Dendy), James Denmark, Murry DePillars, Joseph DeVillis, Robert D'Hue, Kenneth Dickerson, Voris Dickerson, Charles Dickson, Frank Dillon, Leo Dillon, Robert Dilworth, James Donaldson, Jeff Donaldson, Lillian Dorsey, William Dorsey, Aaron Douglas, Emory Douglas, Calvin Douglass, Glanton Dowdell, John Dowell, Sam Doyle, David Driskell, Ulric S. Dunbar, Robert Duncanson, Eugenia Dunn, John Morris Dunn, Edward Dwight, Adolphus Ealey, Lawrence Edelin, William Edmondson, Anthony Edwards, Melvin Edwards, Eugene Eda [as Edy], John Elder, Maurice Ellison, Walter Ellison, Mae Engron, Annette Easley, Marion Epting, Melvyn Ettrick (as Melvin), Clifford Eubanks, Minnie Evans, Darrell Evers, Frederick Eversley, Cyril Fabio, James Fairfax, Kenneth Falana, Josephus Farmer, John Farrar, William Farrow, Malaika Favorite, Elton Fax, Tom Feelings, Claude Ferguson, Violet Fields, Lawrence Fisher, Thomas Flanagan, Walter Flax, Frederick Flemister, Mikelle Fletcher, Curt Flood, Batunde Folayemi, George Ford, Doyle Foreman, Leroy Foster, Walker Foster, John Francis, Richard Franklin, Ernest Frazier, Allan Freelon, Gloria Freeman, Pam Friday, John Fudge, Meta Fuller, Ibibio Fundi, Ramon Gabriel, Alice Gafford, West Gale, George Gamble, Reginald Gammon, Christine Gant, Jim Gary, Adolphus Garrett, Leroy Gaskin, Lamerol A. Gatewood, Herbert Gentry, Joseph Geran, Ezekiel Gibbs, William Giles, Sam Gilliam, Robert Glover, William Golding, Paul Goodnight, Erma Gordon, L. T. Gordon, Robert Gordon, Russell Gordon, Rex Goreleigh, Bernard Goss, Joe Grant, Oscar Graves, Todd Gray, Annabelle Green, James Green, Jonathan Green, Robert Green, Donald Greene, Michael Greene, Joseph Grey, Charles Ron Griffin, Eugene Grigsby, Raymond Grist, Michael Gude, Ethel Guest, John Hailstalk, Charles Haines, Horathel Hall, Karl Hall, Wesley Hall, Edward Hamilton, Eva Hamlin-Miller, David Hammons, James Hampton, Phillip Hampton, Marvin Harden, Inge Hardison, John Hardrick, Edwin Harleston, William Harper, Hugh Harrell, Oliver Harrington, Gilbert Harris, Hollon Harris, John Harris, Scotland J. B. Harris, Warren Harris, Bessie Harvey, Maren Hassinger, Cynthia Hawkins (as Thelma), William Hawkins, Frank Hayden, Kitty Hayden, Palmer Hayden, William Hayden, Vertis Hayes, Anthony Haynes, Wilbur Haynie, Benjamin Hazard, June Hector, Dion Henderson, Napoleon Jones-Henderson, William Henderson, Barkley Hendricks, Gregory A. Henry, Robert Henry, Ernest Herbert, James Herring, Mark Hewitt, Leon Hicks, Renalda Higgins, Hector Hill, Felrath Hines, Alfred Hinton, Tim Hinton, Adrienne Hoard, Irwin Hoffman, Raymond Holbert, Geoffrey Holder, Robin Holder, Lonnie Holley, Alvin Hollingsworth, Eddie Holmes, Varnette Honeywood, Earl J. Hooks, Ray Horner, Paul Houzell, Helena Howard, Humbert Howard, John Howard, Mildred Howard, Raymond Howell, William Howell, Calvin Hubbard, Henry Hudson, Julien Hudson, James Huff, Manuel Hughes, Margo Humphrey, Raymond Hunt, Richard Hunt, Clementine Hunter, Elliott Hunter, Arnold Hurley, Bill Hutson, Zell Ingram, Sue Irons, A. B. Jackson, Gerald Jackson, Harlan Jackson, Hiram Jackson, May Jackson, Oliver Jackson, Robert Jackson, Suzanne Jackson, Walter Jackson, Martha Jackson-Jarvis, Bob James, Wadsworth Jarrell, Jasmin Joseph [as Joseph Jasmin], Archie Jefferson, Rosalind Jeffries, Noah Jemison, Barbara Fudge Jenkins, Florian Jenkins, Chester Jennings, Venola Jennings, Wilmer Jennings, Georgia Jessup, Johana, Daniel Johnson, Edith Johnson, Harvey Johnson, Herbert Johnson, Jeanne Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Marie Johnson-Calloway, Milton Derr (as Milton Johnson), Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Ben Jones, Calvin Jones, Dorcas Jones, Frank A. Jones, Frederick D. Jones, Jr. (as Frederic Jones), Henry B. Jones, Johnny Jones, Lawrence Arthur Jones, Leon Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Nathan Jones, Tonnie Jones, Napoleon Jones-Henderson, Barbara Jones-Hogu, Jack Jordan, Cliff Joseph, Ronald Joseph, Lemuel Joyner, Edward Judie, Michael Kabu, Arthur Kaufman, Charles Keck, Paul Keene, John Kendrick, Harriet Kennedy, Leon Kennedy, Joseph Kersey; Virginia Kiah, Henri King, James King, Gwendolyn Knight, Robert Knight, Lawrence Kolawole, Brenda Lacy, (Laura) Jean Lacy, Roy LaGrone, Artis Lane, Doyle Lane, Raymond Lark, Carolyn Lawrence, Jacob Lawrence, James Lawrence, Clarence Lawson, Louis LeBlanc, James Lee, Hughie Lee-Smith, Lizetta LeFalle-Collins, Leon Leonard, Bruce LeVert, Edmonia Lewis, Edwin E. Lewis, Flora Lewis, James E. Lewis, Norman Lewis, Roy Lewis, Samella Lewis, Elba Lightfoot, Charles Lilly [as Lily], Arturo Lindsay, Henry Linton, Jules Lion, James Little, Marcia Lloyd, Tom Lloyd, Jon Lockard, Donald Locke, Lionel Lofton, Juan Logan, Bert Long, Willie Longshore, Edward Loper, Francisco Lord, Jesse Lott, Edward Love, Nina Lovelace, Whitfield Lovell, Alvin Loving, Ramon Loy, William Luckett, John Lutz, Don McAllister, Theadius McCall, Dindga McCannon, Edward McCluney, Jesse McCowan, Sam McCrary, Geraldine McCullough, Lawrence McGaugh, Charles McGee, Donald McIlvaine, Karl McIntosh, Joseph Mack, Edward McKay, Thomas McKinney, Alexander McMath, Robert McMillon, William McNeil, Lloyd McNeill, Clarence Major, William Majors, David Mann, Ulysses Marshall, Phillip Lindsay Mason, Lester Mathews, Sharon Matthews, William (Bill) Maxwell, Gordon Mayes, Marietta Mayes, Richard Mayhew, Valerie Maynard, Victoria Meek, Leon Meeks, Yvonne Meo, Helga Meyer, Gaston Micheaux, Charles Mickens, Samuel Middleton, Onnie Millar, Aaron Miller, Algernon Miller, Don Miller, Earl Miller, Eva Hamlin Miller, Guy Miller, Julia Miller, Charles Milles, Armsted Mills, Edward Mills, Lev Mills, Priscilla Mills (P'lla), Carol Mitchell, Corinne Mitchell, Tyrone Mitchell, Arthur Monroe, Elizabeth Montgomery, Ronald Moody, Ted Moody, Frank Moore, Ron Moore, Sabra Moore, Theophilus Moore, William Moore, Leedell Moorehead, Scipio Moorhead, Clarence Morgan, Norma Morgan, Sister Gertrude Morgan, Patricia Morris, Keith Morrison, Lee Jack Morton, Jimmie Mosely, David Mosley, Lottie Moss, Archibald Motley, Hugh Mulzac, Betty Murchison, J. B. Murry, Teixera Nash, Inez Nathaniel, Frank Neal, George Neal, Jerome Neal, Robert Neal, Otto Neals, Robert Newsome, James Newton, Rochelle Nicholas, John Nichols, Isaac Nommo, Oliver Nowlin, Trudell Obey, Constance Okwumabua, Osira Olatunde, Kermit Oliver, Yaounde Olu, Ademola Olugebefola, Mary O'Neal, Haywood Oubré, Simon Outlaw, John Outterbridge, Joseph Overstreet, Carl Owens, Winnie Owens-Hart, Lorenzo Pace, William Pajaud, Denise Palm, James Pappas, Christopher Parks, James Parks, Louise Parks, Vera Parks, Oliver Parson, James Pate, Edgar Patience, John Payne, Leslie Payne, Sandra Peck, Alberto Pena, Angela Perkins, Marion Perkins, Michael Perry, Bertrand Phillips, Charles James Phillips, Harper Phillips, Ted Phillips, Delilah Pierce, Elijah Pierce, Harold Pierce, Anderson Pigatt, Stanley Pinckney, Howardena Pindell, Elliott Pinkney, Jerry Pinkney, Robert Pious, Adrian Piper, Horace Pippin, Betty Pitts, Stephanie Pogue, Naomi Polk, Charles Porter, James Porter, Georgette Powell, Judson Powell, Richard Powell, Daniel Pressley, Leslie Price, Ramon Price, Nelson Primus, Arnold Prince, E. (Evelyn?) Proctor, Nancy Prophet, Ronnie Prosser, William Pryor, Noah Purifoy, Florence Purviance, Martin Puryear, Mavis Pusey, Teodoro Ramos Blanco y Penita, Helen Ramsaran, Joseph Randolph; Thomas Range, Frank Rawlings, Jennifer Ray, Maxine Raysor, Patrick Reason, Roscoe Reddix, Junius Redwood, James Reed, Jerry Reed, Donald Reid, O. Richard Reid, Robert Reid, Leon Renfro, John Rhoden, Ben Richardson, Earle Richardson, Enid Richardson, Gary Rickson, John Riddle, Gregory Ridley, Faith Ringgold, Haywood Rivers, Arthur Roach, Malkia Roberts, Royal Robertson, Aminah Robinson, Charles Robinson, John N. Robinson, Peter L. Robinson, Brenda Rogers, Charles Rogers, Herbert Rogers, Juanita Rogers, Sultan Rogers, Bernard Rollins, Henry Rollins, Arthur Rose, Charles Ross, James Ross, Nellie Mae Rowe, Sandra Rowe, Nancy Rowland, Winfred Russsell, Mahler Ryder, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, Charles Sallee, JoeSam., Marion Sampler, Bert Samples, Juan Sanchez, Eve Sandler, Walter Sanford, Floyd Sapp, Raymond Saunders, Augusta Savage, Ann Sawyer, Sydney Schenck, Vivian Schuyler Key, John Scott (Johnny) , John Tarrell Scott, Joyce Scott, William Scott, Charles Searles, Charles Sebree, Bernard Sepyo, Bennie Settles, Franklin Shands, Frank Sharpe, Christopher Shelton, Milton Sherrill, Thomas Sills, Gloria Simmons, Carroll Simms, Jewell Simon, Walter Simon, Coreen Simpson, Ken Simpson, Merton Simpson, William Simpson, Michael Singletary (as Singletry), Nathaniel Sirles, Margaret Slade (Kelley), Van Slater, Louis Sloan, Albert A. Smith, Alfred J. Smith, Alvin Smith, Arenzo Smith, Damballah Dolphus Smith, Floyd Smith, Frank Smith, George Smith, Howard Smith, John Henry Smith, Marvin Smith, Mary T. Smith, Sue Jane Smith, Vincent Smith, William Smith, Zenobia Smith, Rufus Snoddy, Sylvia Snowden, Carroll Sockwell, Ben Solowey, Edgar Sorrells, Georgia Speller, Henry Speller, Shirley Stark, David Stephens, Lewis Stephens, Walter Stephens, Erik Stephenson, Nelson Stevens, Mary Stewart, Renée Stout, Edith Strange, Thelma Streat, Richard Stroud, Dennis Stroy, Charles Suggs, Sharon Sulton, Johnnie Swearingen, Earle Sweeting, Roderick Sykes, Clarence Talley, Ann Tanksley, Henry O. Tanner, James Tanner, Ralph Tate, Carlton Taylor, Cecil Taylor, Janet Taylor Pickett, Lawrence Taylor, William (Bill) Taylor, Herbert Temple, Emerson Terry, Evelyn Terry, Freida Tesfagiorgis, Alma Thomas, Charles Thomas, James "Son Ford" Thomas, Larry Erskine Thomas, Matthew Thomas, Roy Thomas, William Thomas (a.k.a. Juba Solo), Conrad Thompson, Lovett Thompson, Mildred Thompson, Phyllis Thompson, Bob Thompson, Russ Thompson, Dox Thrash, Mose Tolliver, William Tolliver, Lloyd Toone, John Torres, Elaine Towns, Bill Traylor, Charles Tucker, Clive Tucker, Yvonne Edwards Tucker, Charlene Tull, Donald Turner, Leo Twiggs, Alfred Tyler, Anna Tyler, Barbara Tyson Mosley, Bernard Upshur, Jon Urquhart, Florestee Vance, Ernest Varner, Royce Vaughn, George Victory, Harry Vital, Ruth Waddy, Annie Walker, Charles Walker, Clinton Walker, Earl Walker, Lawrence Walker, Raymond Walker [a.k.a. Bo Walker], William Walker, Bobby Walls, Daniel Warburg, Eugene Warburg, Denise Ward-Brown, Evelyn Ware, Laura Waring, Masood Ali Warren, Horace Washington, James Washington, Mary Washington, Timothy Washington, Richard Waters, James Watkins, Curtis Watson, Howard Watson, Willard Watson, Richard Waytt, Claude Weaver, Stephanie Weaver, Clifton Webb, Derek Webster, Edward Webster, Albert Wells, James Wells, Roland Welton, Barbara Wesson, Pheoris West, Lamonte Westmoreland, Charles White, Cynthia White, Franklin White, George White, J. Philip White, Jack White (sculptor), Jack White (painter), John Whitmore, Jack Whitten, Garrett Whyte, Benjamin Wigfall, Bertie Wiggs, Deborah Wilkins, Timothy Wilkins, Billy Dee Williams, Chester Williams, Douglas Williams, Frank Williams, George Williams, Gerald Williams, Jerome Williams, Jose Williams, Laura Williams, Matthew Williams, Michael K. Williams, Pat Ward Williams, Randy Williams, Roy Lee Williams, Todd Williams, Walter Williams, William T. Williams, Yvonne Williams, Philemona Williamson, Stan Williamson, Luster Willis, A. B. Wilson, Edward Wilson, Ellis Wilson, Fred Wilson, George Wilson, Henry Wilson, John Wilson, Stanley C. Wilson, Linda Windle, Eugene Winslow, Vernon Winslow, Cedric Winters, Viola Wood, Hale Woodruff, Roosevelt Woods, Shirley Woodson, Beulah Woodard, Bernard Wright, Dmitri Wright, Estella Viola Wright, George Wright, Richard Wyatt, Frank Wyley, Richard Yarde, James Yeargans, Joseph Yoakum, Bernard Young, Charles Young, Clarence Young, Kenneth Young, Milton Young. WARDLAW, ALVIA J., ROBERT V. MOZELLE, and MAUREEN A. MCKENNA, eds.. Black Art, Ancestral Legacy: The African Impulse in African-American Art. Dallas: Dallas Museum of Art and New York, Abrams, 1989. 305 pp., 320 illus. (170 in fine color), biogs. and exhibs. for individual artists, general bibliog., index. Texts: Edmund B. Gaither, R. A. Perry, Alvia J. Wardlaw, William Ferris, Ute Stebich, Robert F. Thompson. A topical exhibition of great interest, not a survey of Afro-American art. More than 150 works by 49 African American and Afro-Caribbean artists (including 7 women artists): Xenobia Bailey, Minnie Evans Bessie Harvey, Lois Mailou Jones, Jean Lacy, Nancy Prophet, Renée Stout, along with Richmond Barthé, John Biggers, William Edmondson, Aaron Douglas, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Hale Woodruff, Rigaud Bénoit, Gabriel Bien-Aimé, Everald Brown, Edgar Brierre, Murat Brierre, Houston Conwill, Amos Ferguson, Mr. Imagination, Ben Jones, William (Woody) Joseph, Kofi Kayiga, John Landry, Georges Liautaud, Ed Love, Vusumuzi Maduna, David Miller, Jr., David Miller, Sr., Ademola Olugebefola, James Phillips, David Philpot, Anderson Pigatt, Daniel Pressley, Earle Richardson, Sultan Rogers, Bert Samples, Osmond and Willard Watson, Derek Webster, Rip Woods. [Review: Robert L. Douglas, "Formalizing an African-American Aesthetic," New Art Examiner (June/Summer 1991):18-24, illus.] 4to (12 x 9 in.), cloth, d.j. First ed. WASHINGTON (DC). American Art Museum, Smithsonian Institution. African American Art: Harlem Renaissance, Civil Rights Era and Beyond. April 27-September 3, 2012. 256 pp. exhib. cat., color and b&w illus. Text by Richard J. Powell, with catalogue entries by Virginia Mecklenburg, Theresa Slowik and Maricia Battle. Curated by Virginia Mecklenburg. A selection of paintings, sculpture, prints, and photographs by forty-three black artists who explored the African American experience from the Harlem Renaissance through the Civil Rights era and the decades beyond. [Traveling to: Muscarelle Museum of Art, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, September 28, 2012-January 6, 2013; Mennello Museum of American Art, Orlando, FL, February 1-April 28, 2013; Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA, June 1-September 2, 2013; Hunter Museum of American Art, Chattanooga, TN, February 14-May 25, 2014; Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento, CA, June 28-September 21, 2014; Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, NY, October 18, 2014-January 4, 2015.] 4to (12.3 x 10.3 in.), cloth, d.j. First ed. WASHINGTON (DC). Anacostia Museum and Center for African American History and Culture. The Renaissance: Black Arts of the Twenties. September 15, 1985-December 31, 1986. Group exhibition. Included: Aaron Douglas, Richmond Barthé, and Malvin Gray Johnson. WASHINGTON (DC). Anacostia Museum and Center for African American History and Culture. Two Sculptors, Two Eras: Richmond Barthé, Richard Hunt. December 20, 1992-February 28, 1993. 59 pp. exhib. cat., 59 b&w illus. (including installation photos of selected public works), checklist of 36 works (18 sculptures by each artist), biogs., exhibs., colls., commissions. Curated and text by Samella Lewis. Two important African American sculptors, generally perceived to be at opposite ends of the figurative/abstract aesthetic spectrum. Interesting similarities emerge just from the image comparisons alone. Important catalogue. [Exhibition reviews: David Ebony, Richmond Barthé, Richard Hunt at the Anacostia Museum," Art in America 81 (July 1993):109; Portia James, "Washington, DC. Richmond Barthé, Richard Hunt. Anacostia Museum," ARTnews 93 (March 1994):146-47.] WASHINGTON (DC). Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Federal Art Project. Photographic Division Collection 1935-1942. 1930s. Among the papers are photographs taken by the Federal Art Project Photographic Division, primarily in New York City, to document activities of artists working on the Federal Art Project under the Work Projects Administration's Federal Project No 1. The papers include photographs of artists Charles Alston, Henry W. Bannarn, Richmond Barthé, Selma Burke, John S. Glenn, Oliver LaGrone, Jacob Lawrence, Francisco P. Lord, Augusta Savage, and Georgette Seabrook, as well as photographs of art exhibits by black artists (Microfilm reel 1177). Microfilm, WASHINGTON (DC). G Place Gallery. [Group exhibition]. July, 1944. Group exhibition. Included: Richmond Barthé, Jacob Lawrence, Horace Pippin, possibly others. [Review: "Negro Art Show," Art News 43 (July 1944):6-7.] WASHINGTON (DC). Howard University Gallery of Art. American Art from the Howard University Collection. Howard University, 2000. Narration by Tritobia Benjamin. A selection from the collection at Howard University of over 4500 works. Includes primarily 19th and 20th-century (pre-1950) African American art. The works selected address one or more of the following themes: Forever Free: Emancipation Visualized, The First Americans, Training the Head, Hand and the Heart, The American Portrait Gallery, American Expressionism, and Modern Lives, Modern Impulses. A production on CD-ROM by Howard University Television (WHUT-TV), Howard University Radio (WHUR-FM) and Information Systems and Services. Black artists include: William Artis, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Skunder Boghossian, Hilda Wilkinson Brown, Samuel J. Brown, Selma Burke, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Allan Rohan Crite, Charles C. Davis, Aaron Douglas, David Driskell, Robert Duncanson, Sam Gilliam, Isaac Hathaway, May Howard Jackson, Malvin Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Archibald J. Motley, Lenwood Morris, Horace Pippin, James Porter, Faith Ringgold, John Robinson, Charles Sallee, Augusta Savage, Charles Sebree, William H. Simpson, Albert A. Smith, William E. Smith, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Dox Thrash, Laura Wheeler Waring, James Weeks, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Franklin White, Walter J. Williams, George L. Wilson, Hale Woodruff. CD-ROM WASHINGTON (DC). Howard University Gallery of Art. The Dianne Whitfield-Locke & Carnell Locke Collection: Building on Tradition. October 12, 2013-May 12, 2014. Group exhibition. Included: Henry Ossawa Tanner, Robert Duncanson, Grafton Tyler Brown., Aaron Douglas, Palmer Hayden, Jacob Lawrence, William H. Johnson, Richard Hunt, Augusta Savage, Beulah Woodard, Richmond Barthe, and David Driskell. WASHINGTON (DC). National Portrait Gallery. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Permanent Collection Illustrated Checklist. 1982. As of September 30, 1981, the collection included work by: Charles Alston, William Artis, Richmond Barthé, Jules Lion, Scipio Moorhead, Robert Pious, and Laura Wheeler Waring. WASHINGTON (DC). Phillips Memorial Gallery. Three Negro Artists: Horace Pippin, Jacob Lawrence, and Richmond Barthé. December 14, 1946-January 6, 1947. Unpag. (6 leaves) exhib. cat., b&w illus. for Lawrence only. A loan exhibition of paintings and sculpture at the Phillips Memorial Gallery under the auspicies of the Gallery and the Catholic Inter-Racial Council of Washington, D.C. 8vo (25 cm.), wraps. WASHINGTON (DC). Sixth District Police Headquarters. The Evans-Tibbs Collection: Selections from the Permanent Holdings. 19th and 20th Century American Art. August 25-31, 1985. Unpag., 18 b&w illus., checklist of 40 works by 41 artists. Text by Thurlow E. Tibbs, Jr. An exhibition sponsored by the Far East Community Services, Inc. and the D.C. Commission on the Arts and Humanities. Artists included: Charles Alston, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Hilda Brown, Margaret Burroughs, Elizabeth Catlett, Mary Reed Daniel, Beauford Delaney, Louis Delsarte, Richard Dempsey, Aaron Douglas, David Driskell, Clementine Hunter, Joshua Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Gerald McCain, Lev Mills, Marion Perkins, Delilah Pierce, Patrick Reason, Betye Saar, William E. Scott, Addison Scurlock, Charles Sebree, Sharon Sutton, Henry O. Tanner, Alma W. Thomas, Bill Traylor, Curtis Tucker, Yvonne Tucker, James Vanderzee, Joyce Wellman, James L. Wells, Charles White, Hale Woodruff. 4to (28 cm.), wraps. First ed. WASHINGTON (DC). Smithsonian Museum of American Art. African American Art: Harlem Renaissance, Civil Rights Era, and Beyond. April 27-September 3, 2012. 252 pp. exhib. cat., illus. Text by Richard J. Powell, Virginia Mecklenburg, Theresa Slowik. Curated by Virginia Mecklenburg. Paintings, sculpture, prints, and photographs by 43 black artists, a total of 100 works drawn entirely from the Smithsonian American Art Museum collection, including new acquisitions. [Will travel to: Muscarelle Museum of Art, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, September 28, 2012-January 6, 2013; Mennello Museum of American Art, Orlando, FL, February 1-April 28, 2013; Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA, June 1-September 2, 2013; Albuquerque Museum of Art, Albuquerque, NM, September 29, 2013-January 19, 2014; Hunter Museum of American Art, Chattanooga, TN, February 14-May 25, 2014; Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento, CA, June 28-September 21, 2014; Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, NY, October 18, 2014-January 4, 2015.] 4to (12 x 10 in.), cloth, d.j. First ed. WASHINGTON (DC). Smithsonian Museum of American Art. African American Masters: Highlights from the Smithsonian American Art Museum. New York: Abrams, 2003. 112 pp., 52 color plates, bibliog., index. Text by Gwen Everett. Includes: Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John T. Biggers, Allan Rohan Crite, Roy DeCarava, Beauford Delaney, Melvin Edwards, Roland Freeman, Sam Gilliam, Russell T. Gordon, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Norman Lewis, Whitfield Lovell, Robert McNeill, Gordon Parks, Horace Pippin, James Porter, Betye Saar, Renée Stout, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, James Vanderzee, Hale Woodruff, Purvis Young, et al. [Traveled to: New-York Historical Society, April 1-June 1, 2003, Cheekwood Museum of Art, Nashville, TN, June 28-September 7, 2003, Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens, Jacksonville, FL, October 2-November 30, 2003, Cincinnati Art Museum, January 8-March 7, 2004, Currier Museum of Art, Manchester, NH, April 3-June 7, 2004, Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington, DE, July 2-September 5, Long Beach Museum of Art, October 3-November 28, Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Salt Lake City, UT, January 8-February 28, 2005, Spelman College Museum of Fine Arts, Atlanta, GA, March 24-May 13, 2005.] Sq. 4to (25 cm.), cloth, d.j. First ed. WASHINGTON (DC). Washington Project for the Arts. Art in Washington and Its Afro-American Presence 1940-1970. April 2-May 11, 1985. 110 pp. exhib. cat., 42 illus. and photos (incl. 11 color plates), bibliog., artists' biogs., checklist of 108 American works plus 44 comparative African and European works, bibliog. Text by Keith Morrison. Includes: Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Elizabeth Catlett, Eldzier Cortor, Bernice Cross, Richard Dempsey, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, David C. Driskell, Robert Gates, Sam Gilliam, James Herring, Earl Hooks, Jasmin Joseph, Edward Jerimiah, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edward L. Loper, Norman Lewis, Ed Love, Lloyd McNeill, Keith Morrison, Delilah Pierce, Teodoro Ramos Blanco y Penita, Malkia Roberts, John Robinson, Raymond Saunders, Charles Sebree, Merton D. Simpson, Frank E. Smith, Carroll Sockwell, Nelson Stevens, Lou Stovall, white French artist Celene Tabary, Bill Taylor, Alma Thomas, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Gerald Williams, Ellis Wilson, Hale Woodruff, Kenneth Young, and others. 4to (28 cm.), wraps. WATSON, STEVEN. The Harlem Renaissance: Hub of African-American Culture, 1920-1930. New York, Pantheon, 1995. 224 pp., approx. 95 b&w illus., notes, chronol., bibliog., index. Useful survey packed with information, but not about the visual arts. Includes: Aaron Douglas and Bruce Nugent; brief mention of Josephine Baker, Richmond Barthé and James Vanderzee. Oblong 8vo (9.6 x 9.6 in.), 1/4 cloth, d.j. First ed. WILBERFORCE (OH). National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center. When the Spirit Moves: African American Art Inspired by Dance. August 8-November 28, 1999. 170 pp. exhib. cat., color and b&w illus., maps, bibliog. Curated by Samella Lewis. Ed. by Barbara Glass; texts by: Barbara Glass, Brenda Dixon Gottschild, Melanye White-Dixon, Jacqui Malone, Katrina Hazzard-Donald, Samella Lewis. Group exhibition. Included: Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John T. Biggers, Camille Billops, Elizabeth Catlett, Louis Delsarte, Sam Gilliam, Palmer Hayden, Richard Hunt, Valerie Maynard, Archibald Motley, Ademola Olugebefola, Howardena Pindell, John T. Scott, Charles Searles, LaVon Van Williams, Richard Yarde, et al. [Traveled to: Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History, Detroit, MI, January 22-April 23, 2000; Camille Love Crosby Museum, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA, June 20-November 18, 2000; Anacostia Museum, Washington, DC, February 15-June 2, 2001.] 4to (28 cm.), wraps. WINSLOW, VERNON. Negro Art and the Depression. 1941. In: Opportunity, Journal of Negro Life 19 (February 1941):40-42. Mentions Richmond Barthé, Augusta Savage, Malvin Johnson, Hale Woodruff. [Reprinted in Lindsay Patterson, The Negro in Music and Art.] 4to (11 x 8 in.), wraps. WINSTON-SALEM (NC). Benton Convention Center. Reflections: the Afro-American artist: an exhibit of paintings, sculpture, and graphics. October 8-15, 1972. Unpag. (14 pp.) exhib. cat., illus. Group exhibition. Presented by the Winston-Salem Alumnae Chapter, Delta Sigma Theta, Inc. Included: Charles Alston, William E. Artis, Edward Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John T. Biggers, Ann Brewer, Francis H. Brown, Samuel J. Brown, Selma Burke, Elizabeth Catlett, Claude Clark, Sr., Eldzier Cortor, Barbara Collins-Eure, James Diggs, Aaron Douglas, David Driskell, Robert S. Duncanson, Adolphus Ealey, John Farrar, Elton Fax, Frederick C. Flemister, James Everette Funches, Jefferson Grigsby, Ethel D. Guest, Edwin A. Harleston, William A. Harper, Janie R. Harrington, Palmer C. Hayden, Esther Page Hill, Earl J. Hooks, Rennick C. Hoyle, Richard Hunt, Joshua Johnson, Lemuel L. Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Robert H. Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lemuel L. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Joseph Kersey, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Sam Middleton, Eva Hamlin Miller, Scipio Moorhead, Archibald J. Motley, Hayward Oubre, Delilah Pierce, Stephanie Pogue, James A. Porter, John Rhoden, Gregory D. Ridley, Irvin Riley, Charles D. Rogers, Arthur Rose, Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Charles Sebree, Thomas Sills, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Mercedes Thompson, Leo Twiggs, Laura Wheeler Waring, Roland S. Watts, James Lesesne Wells, Glenda Wharton-Little, Charles White, Walter H. Williams, Ellis Wilson, John Wilson, Hale Woodruff, Alpha Worthy, Gilbert E. Young. 4to (11 x 8 in.), wraps. WINTZ, CARY D. and PAUL FINKELMAN, eds. Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance. Routledge, 2004. An obvious inadequate allowance of space for the visual arts in the general subject entries. Only those artists allotted a biography entry receive any serious attention at all. Includes: Charles Alston, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, William E. Braxton, Samuel Countee, Allan Rohan Crite, Beauford Delaney, Aaron Douglas, William McKnight Farrow, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, Edwin A. Harleston, Palmer Hayden, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Augusta Savage, William Edouard Scott, Frank Sheinall, Albert A. Smith, Henry Ossawa Tanner, James Vanderzee, Hale Woodruff. Born in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi in 1901, Richmond Barthé moved to New Orleans, Louisiana at an early age. Little is known about his early youth, except that he grew up in a devoutly Roman Catholic household, he enjoyed drawing and painting, and his formal schooling did not go beyond grade school. From the age of sixteen until his early twenties, Barthé supported himself with a number of service and unskilled jobs, including house servant, porter, and cannery worker. His artistic talent was noticed by his parish priest when Barthé contributed two of his paintings to a fundraising event for his church. The priest was so impressed with his art that he encouraged Barthé to apply to the Art Institute of Chicago in Illinois and raised enough money to pay for his travel and tuition. From 1924 to 1928, Barthé studied painting at the Art Institute, while continuing to engage in unskilled and service employment to support himself. Even though he mainly studied painting, Barthé’s talent as a sculptor was recognized by his fellow students and local critics in Chicago. In 1928, he put on a one-man show that was sponsored by the Chicago Women’s Club. He eventually moved to New York City, New York, locating his studio in Greenwich Village and creating art – and socializing – with central figures of the Harlem Renaissance, including Langston Hughes, Alain Locke, Augusta Savage, and Carl Van Vechten. While he rejected the circumscription of his art within racial boundaries, his most well-regarded work had a strong racial content. Feral Benga and African Dancer, the latter of which was purchased by the Whitney Museum of American Art, celebrated the black body and African culture, while The Mother contemplated the horrors of lynching. Of particular inspiration to Barthé’s art was the black male body, a reflection of his comfort with his homosexuality, according to one of the foremost scholars of Barthé. Barthé continued to create sculpture well into the 1960s, some of which was commissioned as public art. He sculpted an American eagle for the Social Security Building in Washington, D.C. and a bas-relief for the Harlem River Housing Project. In 1949, the Haitian government commissioned him to create monuments to the revolutionary leaders Toussaint L’Overture and Jean Jacques Dessalines in Port-au-Prince. In addition to spending time in Haiti, Barthé lived in Jamaica before returning to the United States and settling in southern California. He died in 1989 Richmond “Jimmie” Barthé (1909-1989) was an African-American sculptor and a key figure in the Harlem Renaissance in the 1930s. That he was also a gay man who expressed his orientation in his work is most likely why he fell into obscurity by the 1940s. Much of his art depicted African-American men in sensual poses, often nude. Today, his work seems not that confrontational, but in a basically racist, sexually nervous America of the middle of the last century, it is remarkable that his work received the acclaim that it did. Barthé was born to Creole parents in Bay St. Louis, Miss., and his art brought him out of poverty. A beautiful, bright boy, he was already winning awards for his drawings by the age of 12. Inspired by the neoclassical art he saw in the homes of the wealthy folks he worked for as a houseboy in New Orleans, he developed a lifelong interest in Greek and Roman mythology. Funded by his local church, he attended school at the Art Institute of Chicago and began to have adult affairs with men who sometimes became patrons. He also had a brief affair with author and actor Richard Bruce Nugent, who was a cast member in Dubose Heyward's play Porgy. In 1930 he relocated to New York and attended A’Leila Walker’s “Dark Tower” gatherings, known as a venue where black and white men and women, often gay, mingled. The photographer and writer Carl Van Vechten was deeply involved with the black community of New York in the '30s and was an ardent supporter of Barthé's work. His reputation grew and his work was included in a 1935 exhibit of African-American art at the Museum of Modern Art. He had success and fame. He even had a female patron who set up a trust for him that gave him the freedom to work without financial worries. But he was still an outsider in many ways. He was not a part of the white art world, and his uncompromising homosexuality kept him distanced somewhat from other artists of the Harlem Renaissance. His love life was a series of short affairs that never developed further. Constantly searching for community, he moved to Jamaica only to find himself even more estranged from others. He fell into deep depression and mental illness. Commissions came sporadically, and he met them with varied results, teetering on the edge financially and emotionally. In 1975 he moved to Pasadena, Calif., and a year later curators at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art included his work in “Two Centuries of Black American Art.” The attention to his work, the growing respect of a younger audience to artists of the Harlem Renaissance, and the support of his friends brought Barthé stability once again. He lived out his later years as a treasured part of the art community, dying in Pasadena March 6, 1989. James Richmond Barthé (1901 - 1989) was a popular African-American sculptor associated with the Harlem Renaissance. He used his art as a means of working out internal conflicts related to race and sexuality. Born on January 28, 1901, in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, into a family of devout Roman Catholic Creoles, Barthé left home at sixteen to work as a houseboy for a wealthy and socially prominent New Orleans family. In 1924, he moved to Chicago, where he took evening art classes at the Art Institute of Chicago and discovered his talent for sculpture. Only months before the stock market crash in 1929, Barthé moved to New York City. There he quickly made the acquaintance of many important artists, writers, patrons, and other intellectuals of the Harlem Renaissance. Although he became renowned as a portraitist of celebrities in the worlds of art, theater, and dance, Barthé produced a variety of sculptures throughout his career. His three major themes are racial politics, religion, and eroticism. Barthé's life and art were devoted to resolving internal conflicts resulting from the political pressures he felt as a black artist in New York, as a deeply spiritual person, and as a homosexual. His sculptures became the means through which he attempted to work out and work through these conflicts. Although he has been labeled a New Negro Artist, Barthé did not fit in well with the New Negro philosophy as articulated by Alain Locke, the chief intellectual of the Harlem Renaissance. Barthé saw himself as set apart from those common black folk described so passionately in the writings of Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston. Unlike many of his artistic and literary contemporaries, Barthé was not overtly political or activist in his promotion of the race, though racial issues frequently surface in his work. In 1931, Barthé's solo exhibition in a New York gallery brought him to the attention of critics. His work expresses a range of emotions and experiences, from lynching as a social reality for blacks to the ephemerality and eroticism of dance. Artistically, Barthé preferred traditional styles and methods. He was particularly inspired by Western classical notions of beauty and Michelangelo's idealization of the male nude. He coupled this interest with Rodinesque expressive compositions and a fascination with primitivism. These qualities are particularly noticeable in his many images of dancing men and women. For Barthé, dance was an inexhaustible theme; he even took dance lessons with Mary Radin of the Martha Graham group soon after arriving in New York as a way to authenticate movement in his figures. In his images of males and females engaged in dance Barthé confronts and attempts to resolve his preoccupations with race, spirituality, and homoerotic desire. Many of the dancing figures suggest the sculptor's ritualistic and erotic involvement with the single male or female subject in motion. In 1937, Barthé exhibited six dance figures at the "Dance International 1900-1937" exhibition held at Rockefeller Center: African Boy Dancing; Feral Benga; Kolombuan; The Lindy Hoppers; African Dancer; and Wetta. The exhibition was a critical triumph for the artist and all of his works were immensely popular with the public, especially his statue of Feral Benga, which was widely publicized. African Dancer is especially interesting for its androgynous features: a masculinized face combined with large breasts and narrow hips. By using modern dance as a theme for his sculptures, Barthé hoped to engage contemporary ideas of expression, primitivism, and modernity. Barthé was unique among African-American artists during the Harlem Renaissance in that he was the only one to exploit fully the black male nude for its political, racial, aesthetic, and erotic significance, as in Feral Benga and Stevedore. His homoeroticism is expressed in both Western mythological themes and in notions of the Africanized primitive. Although Barthé remained closeted all his life, he entered an established network of gay men and women soon after his arrival in Harlem in 1929. His penchant for homoerotic themes was encouraged by his friends in New York's gay and artistic communities, which stretched across barriers of race, gender, and class. Among his black friends and associates were Wallace Thurman, Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, Jimmie Daniels, Countee Cullen, and Harold Jackman. His white allies included Carl Van Vechten, Noel Sullivan, Charles Cullen, Lincoln Kirstein, Paul Cadmus, and Jared French. The majority of Barthé's patrons were white and gay. They included notables such as Winifred Ellerman, who published under the pseudonym Bryher, Van Vechten, Lyle Saxon, and Edgar Kaufmann, Jr. His most important African-American supporters included his friend and one-time lover, Richard Bruce Nugent, as well as Alain Locke The portfolio was remarkable because it offered a photographic history of the works of Barthè: a solo exhibit (Arden Galleries, NY, 1939); Barthè sculpting (in a demonstration at a school in New Rochelle, NY), his subjects (history in the bust of Abraham Lincoln; the theater, “John Gielgud as Hamlet”; homosexuality, “African Boy Dancing” and “Feral Benga”; religion, “John the Baptist” and “Mary,” and his own people, “Blackberry Woman” and “The Negro Looks Ahead”). While most of his works were sculptures, Barthè also did woodcuts and drawings – “Untitled (Portrait of a Young Man)” and “Untitled (Man Playing a Mandolin).” He began as a painter and switched to sculpture while at the Art Institute of Chicago. I learned that these were collotype plates, a type of photographic printing that was new to me. The Harlem Renaissance was an intellectual, social, and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem, New York, spanning the 1920s. During the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke. The Movement also included the new African-American cultural expressions across the urban areas in the Northeast and Midwest United States affected by the African-American Great Migration,[1] of which Harlem was the largest. The Harlem Renaissance was considered to be a rebirth of African-American arts.[2] Though it was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City, many francophone black writers from African and Caribbean colonies who lived in Paris were also influenced by the Harlem Renaissance.[3][4][5][6] The Harlem Renaissance is generally considered to have spanned from about 1918 until the mid-1930s.[7] Many of its ideas lived on much longer. The zenith of this "flowering of Negro literature", as James Weldon Johnson preferred to call the Harlem Renaissance, took place between 1924 (when Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life hosted a party for black writers where many white publishers were in attendance) and 1929 (the year of the stock market crash and the beginning of the Great Depression). Contents1Background2Development2.1Mainstream recognition of Harlem culture2.2Religion2.2.1Discourse2.2.2Criticism2.3Music2.4Fashion3Characteristics and themes4Influence4.1A new Black identity4.2Criticism of the movement5See also6Notes and references6.1Notes6.2References6.3Further reading7External linksBackgroundA map of Upper Manhattan with pink sections for HarlemHarlem in Upper Manhattan.Until the end of the Civil War, the majority of African Americans had been enslaved and lived in the South. During the Reconstruction Era, the emancipated African Americans, freedmen, began to strive for civic participation, political equality and economic and cultural self-determination. Soon after the end of the Civil War the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 gave rise to speeches by African-American Congressmen addressing this Bill.[8] By 1875 sixteen African Americans had been elected and served in Congress and gave numerous speeches with their newfound civil empowerment.[9] The Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 was denounced by black Congressmen[why?][dubious – discuss] and resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1875, part of Reconstruction legislation by Republicans. By the late 1870s, Democratic whites managed to regain power in the South. From 1890 to 1908 they proceeded to pass legislation that disenfranchised most African Americans and many poor whites, trapping them without representation. They established white supremacist regimes of Jim Crow segregation in the South and one-party block voting behind southern Democrats. The Democratic whites denied African Americans their exercise of civil and political rights by terrorizing black communities with lynch mobs and other forms of vigilante violence[10] as well as by instituting a convict labor system that forced many thousands of African Americans back into unpaid labor in mines, on plantations, and on public works projects such as roads and levees. Convict laborers were typically subject to brutal forms of corporal punishment, overwork, and disease from unsanitary conditions. Death rates were extraordinarily high.[11] While a small number of African Americans were able to acquire land shortly after the Civil War, most were exploited as sharecroppers.[12] As life in the South became increasingly difficult, African Americans began to migrate north in great numbers. Most of the African-American literary movement arose from a generation that had memories of the gains and losses of Reconstruction after the Civil War. Sometimes their parents or grandparents had been slaves. Their ancestors had sometimes benefited by paternal investment in cultural capital, including better-than-average education. Many in the Harlem Renaissance were part of the early 20th century Great Migration out of the South into the African-American neighborhoods of the North and Midwest. African Americans sought a better standard of living and relief from the institutionalized racism in the South. Others were people of African descent from racially stratified communities in the Caribbean who came to the United States hoping for a better life. Uniting most of them was their convergence in Harlem. DevelopmentFile:Study of negro artists.ogvContemporary silent short documentary on the Negro Artist. Richmond Barthé working on Kalombwan, (1934).During the early portion of the 20th century, Harlem was the destination for migrants from around the country, attracting both people seeking work from the South, and an educated class who made the area a center of culture, as well as a growing "Negro" middle class. The district had originally been developed in the 19th century as an exclusive suburb for the white middle and upper middle classes; its affluent beginnings led to the development of stately houses, grand avenues, and world-class amenities such as the Polo Grounds and the Harlem Opera House. During the enormous influx of European immigrants in the late 19th century, the once exclusive district was abandoned by the white middle class, who moved farther north. Harlem became an African-American neighborhood in the early 1900s. In 1910, a large block along 135th Street and Fifth Avenue was bought by various African-American realtors and a church group.[13][citation needed] Many more African Americans arrived during the First World War. Due to the war, the migration of laborers from Europe virtually ceased, while the war effort resulted in a massive demand for unskilled industrial labor. The Great Migration brought hundreds of thousands of African Americans to cities such as Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, and New York. Despite the increasing popularity of Negro culture, virulent white racism, often by more recent ethnic immigrants, continued to affect African-American communities, even in the North.[14] After the end of World War I, many African-American soldiers—who fought in segregated units such as the Harlem Hellfighters—came home to a nation whose citizens often did not respect their accomplishments.[15] Race riots and other civil uprisings occurred throughout the US during the Red Summer of 1919, reflecting economic competition over jobs and housing in many cities, as well as tensions over social territories. Mainstream recognition of Harlem cultureThe first stage of the Harlem Renaissance started in the late 1910s. In 1917, the premiere of Three Plays for a Negro Theatre took place. These plays, written by white playwright Ridgely Torrence, featured African-American actors conveying complex human emotions and yearnings. They rejected the stereotypes of the blackface and minstrel show traditions. James Weldon Johnson in 1917 called the premieres of these plays "the most important single event in the entire history of the Negro in the American Theater".[16] Another landmark came in 1919, when the poet Claude McKay published his militant sonnet, "If We Must Die", which introduced a dramatically political dimension to the themes of African cultural inheritance and modern urban experience featured in his 1917 poems "Invocation" and "Harlem Dancer" (published under the pseudonym Eli Edwards, these were his first appearance in print in the United States after immigrating from Jamaica).[17] Although "If We Must Die" never alluded to race, African-American readers heard its note of defiance in the face of racism and the nationwide race riots and lynchings then taking place. By the end of the First World War, the fiction of James Weldon Johnson and the poetry of Claude McKay were describing the reality of contemporary African-American life in America. In 1917 Hubert Harrison, "The Father of Harlem Radicalism," founded the Liberty League and The Voice, the first organization and the first newspaper, respectively, of the "New Negro Movement." Harrison's organization and newspaper were political, but also emphasized the arts (his newspaper had "Poetry for the People" and book review sections). In 1927, in the Pittsburgh Courier, Harrison challenged the notion of the renaissance. He argued that the "Negro Literary Renaissance" notion overlooked "the stream of literary and artistic products which had flowed uninterruptedly from Negro writers from 1850 to the present," and said the so-called "renaissance" was largely a white invention. The Harlem Renaissance grew out of the changes that had taken place in the African-American community since the abolition of slavery, as the expansion of communities in the North. These accelerated as a consequence of World War I and the great social and cultural changes in early 20th-century United States. Industrialization was attracting people to cities from rural areas and gave rise to a new mass culture. Contributing factors leading to the Harlem Renaissance were the Great Migration of African Americans to northern cities, which concentrated ambitious people in places where they could encourage each other, and the First World War, which had created new industrial work opportunities for tens of thousands of people. Factors leading to the decline of this era include the Great Depression. ReligionChristianity played a major role in the Harlem Renaissance. Many of the writers and social critics discussed the role of Christianity in African-American lives. For example, a famous poem by Langston Hughes, "Madam and the Minister", reflects the temperature and mood towards religion in the Harlem Renaissance.[18] The cover story for The Crisis magazine′s publication in May 1936 explains how important Christianity was regarding the proposed union of the three largest Methodist churches of 1936. This article shows the controversial question about the formation of a Union for these churches.[19] The article "The Catholic Church and the Negro Priest", also published in The Crisis, January 1920, demonstrates the obstacles African-American priests faced in the Catholic Church. The article confronts what it saw as policies based on race that excluded African Americans from higher positions in the church.[20] Discourse Religion and Evolution AdVarious forms of religious worship existed during this time of African-American intellectual reawakening. Although there were racist attitudes within the current Abrahamic religious arenas many African Americans continued to push towards the practice of a more inclusive doctrine. For example, George Joseph MacWilliam presents various experiences, during his pursuit towards priesthood, of rejection on the basis of his color and race yet he shares his frustration in attempts to incite action on the part of The Crisis magazine community.[20] There were other forms of spiritualism practiced among African Americans during the Harlem Renaissance. Some of these religions and philosophies were inherited from African ancestry. For example, the religion of Islam was present in Africa as early as the 8th century through the Trans-Saharan trade. Islam came to Harlem likely through the migration of members of the Moorish Science Temple of America, which was established in 1913 in New Jersey. Various forms of Judaism were practiced, including Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform Judaism, but it was Black Hebrew Israelites that founded their religious belief system during the early 20th century in the Harlem Renaissance. Traditional forms of religion acquired from various parts of Africa were inherited and practiced during this era. Some common examples were Voodoo and Santeria.[citation needed] Criticism "An' the stars began to fall." by Aaron DouglasReligious critique during this era was found in literature, art, and poetry. The Harlem Renaissance encouraged analytic dialogue that included the open critique and the adjustment of current religious ideas. One of the major contributors to the discussion of African-American renaissance culture was Aaron Douglas who, with his artwork, also reflected the revisions African Americans were making to the Christian dogma. Douglas uses biblical imagery as inspiration to various pieces of art work but with the rebellious twist of an African influence.[21] Countee Cullen's poem "Heritage" expresses the inner struggle of an African American between his past African heritage and the new Christian culture.[22] A more severe criticism of the Christian religion can be found in Langston Hughes' poem "Merry Christmas", where he exposes the irony of religion as a symbol for good and yet a force for oppression and injustice.[23] MusicA new way of playing the piano called the Harlem Stride style was created during the Harlem Renaissance, and helped blur the lines between the poor African Americans and socially elite African Americans. The traditional jazz band was composed primarily of brass instruments and was considered a symbol of the south, but the piano was considered an instrument of the wealthy. With this instrumental modification to the existing genre, the wealthy African Americans now had more access to jazz music. Its popularity soon spread throughout the country and was consequently at an all-time high. Innovation and liveliness were important characteristics of performers in the beginnings of jazz. Jazz performers and composers at the time such as Eubie Blake, Noble Sissle, Jelly Roll Morton, Luckey Roberts, James P. Johnson, Willie "The Lion" Smith, Fats Waller and Duke Ellington were extremely talented, skillful, competitive and inspirational. They are still considered as having laid great parts of the foundations for future musicians of their genre.[24][25][26] Duke Ellington gained popularity during the Harlem Renaissance. According to Charles Garrett, "The resulting portrait of Ellington reveals him to be not only the gifted composer, bandleader, and musician we have come to know, but also an earthly person with basic desires, weaknesses, and eccentricities."[2] Ellington did not let his popularity get to him. He remained calm and focused on his music. During this period, the musical style of blacks was becoming more and more attractive to whites. White novelists, dramatists and composers started to exploit the musical tendencies and themes of African Americans in their works. Composers used poems written by African-American poets in their songs, and would implement the rhythms, harmonies and melodies of African-American music—such as blues, spirituals, and jazz—into their concert pieces. African Americans began to merge with Whites into the classical world of musical composition. The first African-American male to gain wide recognition as a concert artist in both his region and internationally was Roland Hayes. He trained with Arthur Calhoun in Chattanooga, and at Fisk University in Nashville. Later, he studied with Arthur Hubbard in Boston and with George Henschel and Amanda Ira Aldridge in London, England. He began singing in public as a student, and toured with the Fisk Jubilee Singers in 1911.[27] FashionDuring the Harlem Renaissance, the black clothing scene took a dramatic turn from the prim and proper. Many young women preferred- from short skirts and silk stockings to drop-waisted dresses and cloche hats.[28] Woman wore loose-fitted garments and accessorized with long strand pearl bead necklaces, feather boas, and cigarette holders. The fashion of the Harlem Renaissance was used to convey elegance and flamboyancy and needed to be created with the vibrant dance style of the 1920s in mind.[29] Popular by the 1930s was a trendy, egret-trimmed beret. Men wore loose suits that led to the later style known as the "Zoot," which consisted of wide-legged, high-waisted, peg-top trousers, and a long coat with padded shoulders and wide lapels. Men also wore wide-brimmed hats, colored socks,[30] white gloves, and velvet-collared Chesterfield coats. During this period, African Americans expressed respect for their heritage through a fad for leopard-skin coats, indicating the power of the African animal. The extraordinarily successful black dancer Josephine Baker, though performing in Paris during the height of the Renaissance, was a major fashion trendsetter for black and white women alike. Her gowns from the couturier Jean Patou were much copied, especially her stage costumes, which Vogue magazine called "startling." Josephine Baker is also credited for highlighting the "art deco" fashion era after she performed the "Danse Sauvage". During this Paris performance she adorned a skirt made of string and artificial bananas. Ethel Moses was another popular black performer, Moses starred in silent films in the 1920s and 30s and was recognizable by her signature bob hairstyle. Characteristics and themesA jazz combo playingTrumpeter Dizzy Gillespie is emblematic of the mixture of high class society, popular art, and virtuosity of jazz.Characterizing the Harlem Renaissance was an overt racial pride that came to be represented in the idea of the New Negro, who through intellect and production of literature, art, and music could challenge the pervading racism and stereotypes to promote progressive or socialist politics, and racial and social integration. The creation of art and literature would serve to "uplift" the race. There would be no uniting form singularly characterizing the art that emerged from the Harlem Renaissance. Rather, it encompassed a wide variety of cultural elements and styles, including a Pan-African perspective, "high-culture" and "low-culture" or "low-life," from the traditional form of music to the blues and jazz, traditional and new experimental forms in literature such as modernism and the new form of jazz poetry. This duality meant that numerous African-American artists came into conflict with conservatives in the black intelligentsia, who took issue with certain depictions of black life. Some common themes represented during the Harlem Renaissance were the influence of the experience of slavery and emerging African-American folk traditions on black identity, the effects of institutional racism, the dilemmas inherent in performing and writing for elite white audiences, and the question of how to convey the experience of modern black life in the urban North. The Harlem Renaissance was one of primarily African-American involvement. It rested on a support system of black patrons, black-owned businesses and publications. However, it also depended on the patronage of white Americans, such as Carl Van Vechten and Charlotte Osgood Mason, who provided various forms of assistance, opening doors which otherwise might have remained closed to the publication of work outside the black American community. This support often took the form of patronage or publication. Carl Van Vechten was one of the most noteworthy white Americans involved with the Harlem Renaissance. He allowed for assistance to the black American community because he wanted racial sameness. There were other whites interested in so-called "primitive" cultures, as many whites viewed black American culture at that time, and wanted to see such "primitivism" in the work coming out of the Harlem Renaissance. As with most fads, some people may have been exploited in the rush for publicity. Interest in African-American lives also generated experimental but lasting collaborative work, such as the all-black productions of George Gershwin's opera Porgy and Bess, and Virgil Thomson and Gertrude Stein's Four Saints in Three Acts. In both productions the choral conductor Eva Jessye was part of the creative team. Her choir was featured in Four Saints.[31] The music world also found white band leaders defying racist attitudes to include the best and the brightest African-American stars of music and song in their productions. The African Americans used art to prove their humanity and demand for equality. The Harlem Renaissance led to more opportunities for blacks to be published by mainstream houses. Many authors began to publish novels, magazines and newspapers during this time. The new fiction attracted a great amount of attention from the nation at large. Among authors who became nationally known were Jean Toomer, Jessie Fauset, Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, James Weldon Johnson, Alain Locke, Omar Al Amiri, Eric D. Walrond and Langston Hughes. Richard Bruce Nugent (1906–1987) who wrote "Smoke, Lilies, and Jade" is an important contribution, especially in relation to experimental form and LGBT themes in the period.[32] The Harlem Renaissance helped lay the foundation for the post-World War II protest movement of the Civil Rights Movement. Moreover, many black artists who rose to creative maturity afterward were inspired by this literary movement. The Renaissance was more than a literary or artistic movement, as it possessed a certain sociological development—particularly through a new racial consciousness—through ethnic pride, as seen in the Back to Africa movement led by Marcus Garvey. At the same time, a different expression of ethnic pride, promoted by W. E. B. Du Bois, introduced the notion of the "talented tenth": the African Americans who were fortunate enough to inherit money or property or obtain a college degree during the transition from Reconstruction to the Jim Crow period of the early twentieth century. These "talented tenth" were considered the finest examples of the worth of black Americans as a response to the rampant racism of the period. (No particular leadership was assigned to the talented tenth, but they were to be emulated.) In both literature and popular discussion, complex ideas such as Du Bois's concept of "twoness" (dualism) were introduced (see The Souls of Black Folk; 1903).[33] Du Bois explored a divided awareness of one's identity that was a unique critique of the social ramifications of racial consciousness. This exploration was later revived during the Black Pride movement of the early 1970s. InfluenceA new Black identity Langston Hughes, novelist and poet, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1936"Sometimes I feel discriminated against, but it does not make me angry. It merely astonishes me. How can anyone deny themselves the pleasure of my company? It's beyond me." - Zora Neale Hurston[34] The Harlem Renaissance was successful in that it brought the Black experience clearly within the corpus of American cultural history. Not only through an explosion of culture, but on a sociological level, the legacy of the Harlem Renaissance redefined how America, and the world, viewed African Americans. The migration of southern Blacks to the north changed the image of the African American from rural, undereducated peasants to one of urban, cosmopolitan sophistication. This new identity led to a greater social consciousness, and African Americans became players on the world stage, expanding intellectual and social contacts internationally. The progress—both symbolic and real—during this period became a point of reference from which the African-American community gained a spirit of self-determination that provided a growing sense of both Black urbanity and Black militancy, as well as a foundation for the community to build upon for the Civil Rights struggles in the 1950s and 1960s. The urban setting of rapidly developing Harlem provided a venue for African Americans of all backgrounds to appreciate the variety of Black life and culture. Through this expression, the Harlem Renaissance encouraged the new appreciation of folk roots and culture. For instance, folk materials and spirituals provided a rich source for the artistic and intellectual imagination, which freed Blacks from the establishment of past condition. Through sharing in these cultural experiences, a consciousness sprung forth in the form of a united racial identity. However, there was some pressure within certain groups of the Harlem Renaissance to adopt sentiments of conservative white America in order to be taken seriously by the mainstream. The result being that queer culture, while far-more accepted in Harlem than most places in the country at the time, was most fully lived out in the smoky dark lights of bars, nightclubs, and cabarets in the city.[35] It was within these venues that the blues music scene boomed, and since it had not yet gained recognition within popular culture, queer artists used it as a way to express themselves honestly.[35] Even though there were factions within the Renaissance that were accepting of queer culture/lifestyles, one could still be arrested for engaging in homosexual acts. Many people, including author Alice Dunbar-Nelson and "The Mother of Blues" Gertrude "Ma" Rainey,[36] had husbands but were romantically linked to other women as well.[37] Ma Rainey was known to dress in traditionally male clothing and her blues lyrics often reflected her sexual proclivities for women, which was extremely radical at the time. Ma Rainey was also the first person to introduce blues music into vaudeville.[38] Rainey's protégé, Bessie Smith was another artist who used the blues as a way to express herself with such lines as "When you see two women walking hand in hand, just look em' over and try to understand: They'll go to those parties – have the lights down low – only those parties where women can go."[35] Blues singer Gladys BentleyAnother prominent blues singer was Gladys Bentley, who was known to cross-dress. Bentley was the club owner of Clam House on 133rd Street in Harlem, which was a hub for queer patrons. The Hamilton Lodge in Harlem hosted an annual drag ball that attracted thousands to watch as a couple hundred young men came to dance the night away in drag. Though there were safe havens within Harlem, there were prominent voices such as that of Abyssinian Baptist Church's minister Adam Clayton who actively campaigned against homosexuality.[37] The Harlem Renaissance gave birth to the idea of The New Negro. The New Negro movement was an effort to define what it meant to be African-American by African Americans rather than let the degrading stereotypes and caricatures found in black face minstrelsy practices to do so. There was also The Neo-New Negro movement, which not only challenged racial definitions and stereotypes, but also sought to challenge gender roles, normative sexuality, and sexism in America in general. In this respect, the Harlem Renaissance was far ahead of the rest of America in terms of embracing feminism and queer culture.[39] These ideals received some push back as freedom of sexuality, particularly pertaining to women (which during the time in Harlem was known as women-loving women),[36] was seen as confirming the stereotype that black women were loose and lacked sexual discernment. The black bourgeoisie saw this as hampering the cause of black people in America and giving fuel to the fire of racist sentiments around the country. Yet for all of the efforts by both sectors of white and conservative black America, queer culture and artists defined major portions of not only the Harlem Renaissance, but also defined so much of our culture today. Author of "The Black Man's Burden", Henry Louis Gates Jr. wrote on this very subject matter, the Harlem Renaissance "was surely as gay as it was black".[39] Three African American women in Harlem during the Harlem Renaissance, ca. 1925Criticism of the movementMany critics point out that the Harlem Renaissance could not escape its history and culture in its attempt to create a new one, or sufficiently separate from the foundational elements of White, European culture. Often Harlem intellectuals, while proclaiming a new racial consciousness, resorted to mimicry of their white counterparts by adopting their clothing, sophisticated manners and etiquette. This "mimicry" may also be called assimilation, as that is typically what minority members of any social construct must do in order to fit social norms created by that construct's majority.[40] This could be seen as a reason that the artistic and cultural products of the Harlem Renaissance did not overcome the presence of White-American values, and did not reject these values. In this regard, the creation of the "New Negro" as the Harlem intellectuals sought, was considered a success. The Harlem Renaissance appealed to a mixed audience. The literature appealed to the African-American middle class and to whites. Magazines such as The Crisis, a monthly journal of the NAACP, and Opportunity, an official publication of the National Urban League, employed Harlem Renaissance writers on their editorial staffs; published poetry and short stories by black writers; and promoted African-American literature through articles, reviews, and annual literary prizes. As important as these literary outlets were, however, the Renaissance relied heavily on white publishing houses and white-owned magazines. A major accomplishment of the Renaissance was to open the door to mainstream white periodicals and publishing houses, although the relationship between the Renaissance writers and white publishers and audiences created some controversy. W. E. B. Du Bois did not oppose the relationship between black writers and white publishers, but he was critical of works such as Claude McKay's bestselling novel Home to Harlem (1928) for appealing to the "prurient demand[s]" of white readers and publishers for portrayals of black "licentiousness".[41] Langston Hughes spoke for most of the writers and artists when he wrote in his essay "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain" (1926) that black artists intended to express themselves freely, no matter what the black public or white public thought.[42] Hughes in his writings also returned to the theme of racial passing, but during the Harlem Renaissance, he began to explore the topic of homosexuality and homophobia. He began to use disruptive language in his writings. He explored this topic because it was a theme that during this time period was not discussed.[43] African-American musicians and other performers also played to mixed audiences. Harlem's cabarets and clubs attracted both Harlem residents and white New Yorkers seeking out Harlem nightlife. Harlem's famous Cotton Club, where Duke Ellington performed, carried this to an extreme, by providing black entertainment for exclusively white audiences. Ultimately, the more successful black musicians and entertainers who appealed to a mainstream audience moved their performances downtown. Certain aspects of the Harlem Renaissance were accepted without debate, and without scrutiny. One of these was the future of the "New Negro". Artists and intellectuals of the Harlem Renaissance echoed American progressivism in its faith in democratic reform, in its belief in art and literature as agents of change, and in its almost uncritical belief in itself and its future. This progressivist worldview rendered Black intellectuals—just like their White counterparts—unprepared for the rude shock of the Great Depression, and the Harlem Renaissance ended abruptly because of naive assumptions about the centrality of culture, unrelated to economic and social realities.[citation needed] Harlem Renaissance sculptor Richmond Barthé approached art-making as a spiritual endeavor. He believed that if an artist considered how an object felt, rather than how it looked, then his hands could execute the sculpture with little interference from his conscious mind. During his sixty-year career, Barthé received numerous prestigious awards for his art, including the Rosenwald Fellowship and the Guggenheim Fellowship. Considered by critics to be one of the leading “moderns” of his time, Barthé’s sculpture bridges the gap between realism and abstraction. Born and reared in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, Barthé was a member of a Creole Roman Catholic family. Although his father died when he was just an infant, Barthé’s mother actively encouraged her often sickly son’s artistic inclinations by providing him with drawing materials. Both the Gulf shoreline and Catholic Church provided ample source material for his early endeavors. With only a middle school education, young “Jimmie,” as he was familiarly known, accepted a position as a houseboy in New Orleans, moving to that city at the age of fourteen. Fortunately, the family for whom Barthé worked was supportive of his artistic pursuits. After Barthé donated two oil paintings to the all-black church he attended there, the parish priest raised money to fund Barthé’s 1924 travel to and enrollment at the Art Institute in Chicago, one of only two art academies that accepted African American students at that time. In Chicago, Barthé attended painting and sculpture classes at the institute with his friend and classmate Ellis Wilson. He also undertook private instruction with notable independent teachers, including Archibald Motley, Jr., all the while working multiple jobs to make ends meet. The year 1928 marked a turning point in Barthé’s career when two of his busts were exhibited in the newly organized Negro in Art Week Exhibition and the annual exhibition of the Chicago Art League. His work was well received and even praised later that year in the November issue of Opportunity Magazine. As a result, Barthé received numerous commissions for bust portraits. Upon graduation from the Art Institute in 1929, Barthé relocated to New York, where he established a studio in Harlem. Immersing himself in the cultural renaissance flourishing there, Barthé developed a reputation among scholars of the New Negro Movement, including Alain Locke, who became a passionate collector and promoter of his work, as well as Langston Hughes. As a homosexual African American man, Barthé maintained an openness to studying people of all races, creeds, and demographics. Eager to understand the nature of societies and the people who function within them, Barthé sought to capture the spiritual essence of his subjects. “For me,” he said, “there is no Negro art—only art. I have not limited myself to Negro subjects. It makes no difference in my approach to the subject matter whether I am to model a Scandinavian or an African dancer.” However, he is best known for the allegorical and genre figures of African Americans he executed during the 1930s and 1940s, subjects inspired by his Christian faith, interest in African lore, and fascination with theatre and dance. During these decades, Barthé was the only black sculptor for whom the male nude was central. These figures initially appear to fit within the Realist tradition, but their elongated and sometimes distorted forms lend an Expressionist quality. The artist’s talent did not go unnoticed. In 1934, Barthé was awarded his first solo show at the Caz Delbo Gallery in New York City and was invited to execute several significant pieces of public art. Shortly thereafter, his work found its way into the Whitney Museum, Metropolitan Museum of Art, and Art Institute of Chicago, among other acclaimed public institutions. Eager to escape what he described as the increasingly tense and violent environment, Barthé left New York City at the height of his career and moved to Jamaica in the late 1940s. Though soon forgotten by New York art critics, Barthé’s career flourished in Jamaica. He relished the inspirational beauty of Jamaica, which he compared to that of his childhood home. But when gang-related violence became problematic in that country in the 1960s, the artist went on hiatus to Europe, living in Switzerland, Spain, and Italy over a five-year period. Struggling financially, Barthé returned to the United States in 1977. He took up residence in Pasadena, California, where he remained and continued sculpting until his death. Barthé willed his papers and works to the actor James Garner, who had become a loyal benefactor and friend during the artist’s final years. Garner, in turn, donated these gifts to the Amistad Research Center and the Museum of African American Art. Richmond Barthé was born on January 28, 1901 (to March 5, 1989). He was an important sculptor who rose to prominence during the Harlem Renaissance, later becoming well-known through his many public works, including the “Toussaint L’Ouverture Monument” in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, the “Walls of Jericho” for the Harlem River Housing Project, and a sculpture of Rose McClendon for Frank Lloyd Wright’s iconic Pennsylvania home, Fallingwater. James Richmond Barthé was born in Bay Saint Louis, Mississippi, into a family of devout Roman Catholic Creoles. His father, Richmond Barthé, died at age 22 of pneumonia when Richmond was only a month old, leaving his mother to raise him alone. As an adult, Barthé would honor his father by assuming his given name, Richmond. Little “Jimmie” was a frail and introverted child, but he had a remarkable gift for drawing. His fourth grade teacher and his parish priest influenced young Richmond’s aesthetic development, and he demonstrated great promise as an artist at a young age. Barthé spent hours at a time copying newspaper and magazine illustrations, but his poor health resulted in extended absences from school, and, at age twelve, his formal education ended. Because a “Colored” American in the South was barred from enrolling in any of the art schools near his home in New Orleans, Louisiana, Barthé became largely self-taught. His work was shown at a county fair in Mississippi when Barthé was twelve, and he continued to develop remarkably as an artist. Barthé left home at sixteen to work as a houseboy and handyman for a wealthy and socially prominent New Orleans family. While living and working in the midst of fine art and books, and with some encouragement from his employers, Barthé taught himself to paint in oils with impressive results. At eighteen, his parish priest and a writer for the “New Orleans Times Picayune” recognized his ability. Richmond donated a portrait he made for a church fundraiser. The priest and the writer, along with his employer, were determined to find an art school where Barthé could study and expand his talent. In 1924, Father Harry F. Kane helped fund Barthé’s first year of evening classes at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Enrolled as Richmond Barthé, he boarded in Chicago’s Bronzeville, bussed café tables on Michigan Avenue by day, and acquired the skills of a professional painter by night. During the next four years, Barthé followed a curriculum structured for majors in painting. His work caught the attention of Dr. Charles Maceo Thompson, a patron of the arts, and supporter of many talented young Black artists. Barthé was a flattering portrait painter, and Dr. Thompson helped him to secure many lucrative commissions from the city’s affluent Black citizens. During his senior year, Barthé was introduced to sculpture by his anatomy teacher. He began modeling in clay to gain a better understanding of the third dimension in his painting. This transition proved to be a turning point in Barthé’s career. He exhibited two busts in the 1927 Negro in Art Week exhibition, and attended a lecture by philosopher Alain Locke, who soon became an important advocate and friend. Barthé also participated in the April 1928 annual exhibition of the Chicago Art League, receiving much critical praise and numerous commissions. Just months before the stock market collapsed in 1929, Barthé arrived in Harlem for an extended stay funded by a Rosenwald Fellowship. He intended to participate in, and gain inspiration from the New Negro arts renaissance already nearing its peak. Harlemites raved about Barthé (they called him “handsome as all get out”), and, within a short time, he began introducing himself only by his first name. He established a studio in Harlem, and eventually moved to New York City permanently in 1930. During the next two decades, Barthé built his reputation as a sculptor. He became an important contributor to the Harlem Renaissance, and secured a Guggenheim fellowship twice, in addition to other awards. By 1934, Barthé’s reputation was so well established that he was given his first solo show at the Caz Delbo Galleries. Barthé experienced success after success, and was considered by writers and critics as one of the leading “moderns” of his time. In 1937, Richmond Barthé exhibited six dance figures at the Dance International 1900-1937 exhibition held at Rockefeller Center. The exhibition was a critical triumph for the artist, and all of his works were immensely popular with the public, especially his statues of “Feral Benga” and “African Dancer,” which was notable for its androgynous features. By using modern dance as a theme for his sculptures, Barthé hoped to engage contemporary ideas of expression, primitivism, and modernity. For Barthé, dance was an inexhaustible theme; he even took dance lessons with Mary Radin of the Martha Graham group soon after arriving in New York as a way to authenticate movement in his figures. In his images of males and females engaged in dance, Barthé explores perceptions of race, spirituality, and homoerotic desire. Although Barthé remained closeted all his life, he entered an established network of gay men and women soon after his arrival in Harlem in 1929. His penchant for homoerotic themes was encouraged by his friends in New York’s gay and artistic communities. Barthé’s unique portrayal of the male figures made him popular among prominent white, gay patrons. They included notables such as photographer Carl Van Vechten, and department store magnate Edgar Kaufmann, Jr., for whom architect Frank Lloyd Wright created his masterpiece, “Fallingwater.” Barthé’s most important African American supporters and patrons included his friend and one-time lover, Richard Bruce Nugent, as well as Alain Locke. Eventually, Richmond Barthé decided to abandon his life of fame and move to Jamaica in 1947. His career flourished, and he remained there until the mid-1960s. Barthé created major works in Haiti after his 1947 move to Ocho Rios, Jamaica, and they were among his largest and most important projects. The huge equestrian bronze of “Dessalines” was one of four heroic sculptures commissioned in 1948 by Haitian political leaders to mark independence celebrations. Barthé’s 40-foot-high “L’Ouverture” statue and stone monument was positioned near the National Palace, and was unveiled in 1950. At the time, one African American newspaper called the collection “the Greatest Negro Monuments on earth.” L’Ouverture was, in fact, a subject Barthé returned to several times, having previously created a bust in 1926, and a painted portrait in 1929. Barthé spent the next five years living in Europe before eventually settling in Pasadena, California. When he moved to a rental apartment, above a garage in Pasadena, the city named the street after him. In that apartment, Barthé worked on his memoirs, and most importantly, editioned many of his works with the financial assistance of actor James Garner, who remained his patron until Barthé’s death on March 6, 1989. Today, Barthé’s pieces are in collections at the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Pennsylvania Museum of Art, and the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, among others. Richmond Barthé received many honors during his career, including the Rosenwald Fellowship and Guggenheim Fellowship, and was honored by the National Academy of Arts and Letters. Barthé also received awards for interracial justice and honorary degrees from Xavier and St. Francis universities. He was the recipient of the Audubon Artists Gold Medal in 1950. We remember James Richmond Barthé in deep appreciation for his brilliant artistry, his persistent determination to learn and succeed, and his many contributions to our community. Richmond Barthé (1909-1989) was the first modern African American sculptor to achieve real critical success. His accessible naturalism led to unprecedented celebrity for an artist during the 1930s and 1940s. After four years of academic training at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, Barthé reaped the benefits of the 1920s New Negro Arts Renaissance. He also endured difficulties as a gay, Roman Catholic, Creole sculptor working during the nation's post-World War II era. He gave his black subjects in particular an intensity and sensuality that attracted important European American patrons and the press. Much of Barthé's biography is recorded here for the first time in tandem with analyses and interpretations of his sculpture. Born to Creole parents in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, Barthé's art brought him out of poverty. At the height of his fame, he was often criticized for not talking about injustices African Americans faced. He expected his art to speak not only for itself, but also for him. He fled the United States for an expatriate's life in Jamaica only to learn that, as an artist and a black man, he could not be accepted on his own terms, and there was no such thing as a perfect home. Barthé: A Life in Sculpture reveals the breadth of Barthé's oeuvre through readings of his figurative masterworks that attest to accomplishments in a life lived well beyond race. Independent scholar Margaret Rose Vendryes has taught art history and African American studies at York College, Princeton University, and the Graduate Center, City University of New York. She has published in International Review of African American Art and elsewhere. Jeffrey C. Stewart, professor of history at George Mason University, is the author of numerous articles and books, including Paul Robeson: Artist and Citizen. Richmond Barthe was born on January 28, 1901, in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, on land that had once been part of a large property owned by his maternal grandfather. His parents, Richmond Barthe, Sr. and Marie Clementine (Robateau) Barthe, were of African, French, Spanish, and Native American descent. His father died, when Barthe was just a few months old. From that point, his mother supported the family by working as a dressmaker. Later, she married William Franklin, Barthe’s godfather. Barthe was one of the first sculptors to focus on blacks as his main subjects. During the 1930s and 1940s, when he reached the height of his career, Barthe achieved critical acclaim, commercial success, and widespread popularity. The African American community, in particular, responded positively to Barthe’s sympathetic portrayals of blacks. “Aesthetically, he brought a new insight to the individuality and physical grace of all types of black people,”Romare Bearden and Harry Henderson wrote in A History of African-American Artists. Barthe’s sculptures have been collected by the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Smithsonian Institution, as well as many other museums and universities. His most famous public works include an eagle that stands in front of the Social Security Building in Washington, DC, and a 40-foot statue of Haitian revolutionary Jean Jacques Dessalines, which he created for the city of Port-au-Prince. Barthe also designed several Haitian coins that are still in use. Barthe took a traditional approach to sculpture, sometimes exaggerating certain aspects of a figure, but always maintaining a strong undercurrent of realism. After World War II, when the art world became interested in more abstract forms of expression, his career waned. Abstract sculpture did not hold an attraction for Barthe, who remained a traditionalist. “All my life I have been interested in trying to capture the spiritual quality I see in people, and I feel that the human figure as God made it, is the best means of expressing this spirit in man,” he was quoted as saying in Great Negroes, Past and Present. Sculptor.Solo shows included William Grant Still Community Art Center, 1978; Inst. Jamaica, 1959; Montclair Art Museum, NJ, 1949; Margaret Brown Galleries, Boston, MA, 1947; Grand Central Art Galleries, NY, NY, 1947; Sayville Playhouse, NY, NY, 1945;Intl .Print Soc., 1945; DePorres Interracial Center, 1945; South Side Art Ctr, Chicago, IL, 1942; Arden Galleries, New York, NY, 1939; Delphic Studios, 1935; Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1931-33; Grand Rapids Art Gallery, Ml, 1930. Numerous group shows, including Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY; Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY; Chicago World’s Fair; Philadelphia Museum of Art; Afro-American History and Culture Museum, Philadelphia, PA; Los Angeles County Art Museum; Dallas Museum of Fine Arts. Represented in permanent collections of Whitney Museum of American Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Art Institute of Chicago, Jamaican Public Library, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Los Angeles County Art Museum, Yale Univ. Museum, Howard Univ.Gallery of Art, Tuskegee Univ. Gallery of Art, and others. Awards: Julius Rosenwald fund fellowship, 1930; Guggenheim fellowship, 1940; “Artists for Victory” prize, 1942.Commissions for busts of Booker T. Washington and Dr. George Washington Carver, Hall of Fame; sculpture for Social Security Bldg., Washington, D.C.; monuments of Toussaint L’Ouverture and General Dessalines, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; designs for Haitian coins. Barthe’s artistic ability was discovered early; his mother claimed that “Jimmie,” as she called him, could draw before he could walk. “When I was crawling on the floor, my mother gave me paper and pencil to play with,” Barthe was quoted as saying in A History of African-American Artists. “It kept me quiet while she did her errands. At six years old I started painting. A lady my mother sewed for gave me a set of watercolors. By that time, I could draw very well.” The family were devout Catholics. Barthe attended St. Rose de Lima Parochial School, then Valena Jones High School, leaving when he was 14. He then held various jobs in a restaurant, an office, and helping his stepfather on the ice truck. However, one of his stepfather’s white customers, an artist herself, was concerned that carrying cold ice on his shoulder might give him rheumatism and prevent him from painting. She introduced him to some white friends, the Pond family, who hired him as a household servant. Barthe moved with the Ponds to New Orleans, where he lived for the next nine years. The Ponds held liberal views about race for their time, and treated Barthe more as a member of the family than as a servant. They included him in social events in their home, took him to the theater, and encouraged him in his art. During his years with the Ponds, Barthe learned to feel comfortable in a range of social situations—a skill that would help him later in his career, when he was often commissioned by wealthy people to sculpt their portraits. In his free time, Barthe continued to work on his drawing, copying paintings that the Ponds owned or reproductions from their library. When Barthe was 23, he did his first oil painting, a portrait of Christ, and donated it to a local church to be auctioned at its charity bazaar. Father Kane, the parish priest, was astounded that the artist was a butler with no art training and decided that Barthe should go to art school. At the time, no local schools would accept black students, but Father Kane would not be deterred. He took up a collection from his friends, added some of his own money, and sent Barthe north, to the Art Institute of Chicago. African-American topicsAfrican AmericaHistory (timeline)[show]Culture[show]Religion[show]Political movements[show]Civic / economic groups[show]Sports[show]Ethnic subdivisions[show]Languages[show]Diaspora[show]Lists[show]Category: African-American societyAmericaAfrica.svg African American portalvteAfrican-American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community (African Americans). Influenced by various cultural traditions, including those of Africa, Europe and the Americas, traditional African-American art forms include the range of plastic arts, from basket weaving, pottery, and quilting to woodcarving and painting. Contents1History1.1Pre-colonial, Antebellum and Civil War eras1.2Post-Civil War1.3The Harlem Renaissance to contemporary art1.3.1Mid-20th century2See also3References4Sources5External linksHistoryPre-colonial, Antebellum and Civil War eras This is the carved powder horn by carver John Bush from around 1754. Harriet Powers, Bible quilt, Mixed Media. 1898.Prior to the 20th century, African-American art existed during the French and Indian War. John Bush was a powder horn carver and soldier with the Massachusetts militia fighting with the British. His work has toured throughout Canada and the US.[1][2] His powder horn of 1756 has been part of a travelling exhibition throughout Canada and US.[3][4] Art continued in subsequent slave communities, through the end of the 20th century, African-American art has made a vital contribution to the art of the United States.[5] During the period between the 17th century and the early 19th century art took the form of small drums, quilts, wrought-iron figures and ceramic vessels in the southern United States; these artifacts have similarities with comparable crafts in West and Central Africa. In contrast, black artisans like the New England–based engraver Scipio Moorhead and the Baltimore portrait painter Joshua Johnson created art that was conceived in a western European fashion for their local markets.[6] Many of Africa’s most skilled artisans were enslaved in the Americas, while others learned their trades or crafts as apprentices to African or white skilled workers. It was often the practice for slave owners to hire out skilled artisans. With the consent of their masters, some slave artisans also were able to keep a small percentage of the wages earned in their free time and thereby save enough money to purchase their, and their families', freedom.[7] G. W. Hobbs, Patrick H. Reason, Joshua Johnson, and Scipio Moorhead were among the earliest known portrait artists, from the period of 1773–1887. Patronage by some white families allowed for private tutorship in special cases. Many of these sponsoring whites were abolitionists. The artists received more encouragement and were better able to support themselves in cities, of which there were more in the North and border states. Harriet Powers (1837–1910) was an African-American folk artist and quilt maker from rural Georgia, United States, born into slavery. Now nationally recognized for her quilts, she used traditional appliqué techniques to record local legends, Bible stories, and astronomical events on her quilts. Only two of her late quilts have survived: Bible Quilt 1886 and Bible Quilt 1898. Her quilts are considered among the finest examples of 19th-century Southern quilting,.[8][9] Like Powers, the women of Gee's Bend developed a distinctive, bold, and sophisticated quilting style based on traditional American (and African-American) quilts, but with a geometric simplicity. Although widely separated by geography, they have qualities reminiscent of Amish quilts and modern art. The women of Gee's Bend passed their skills and aesthetic down through at least six generations to the present.[10] At one time scholars believed slaves sometimes utilized quilt blocks to alert other slaves about escape plans during the time of the Underground Railroad,[11] but most historians do not agree. Quilting remains alive as form of artistic expression in the African-American community. Post-Civil WarAfter the Civil War, it became increasingly acceptable for African American-created works to be exhibited in museums, and artists increasingly produced works for this purpose. These were works mostly in the European romantic and classical traditions of landscapes and portraits. Edward Mitchell Bannister, Henry Ossawa Tanner and Edmonia Lewis are the most notable of this time. Others include Grafton Tyler Brown, Nelson A. Primus and Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller. The goal of widespread recognition across racial boundaries was first eased within America's big cities, including Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, New York, and New Orleans. Even in these places, however, there were discriminatory limitations. Abroad, however, African Americans were much better received. In Europe — especially Paris, France — these artists could express much more freedom in experimentation and education concerning techniques outside traditional western art. Freedom of expression was much more prevalent in Paris as well as Munich and Rome to a lesser extent. The Harlem Renaissance to contemporary art Sand Dunes at Sunset, Atlantic City by Henry Ossawa Tanner is in the collection of the White House, and hangs in the Green Room. Acquired during the Clinton administration with funds from the White House Acquisition Trust, it is the first artwork in the White House by an African American.The Harlem Renaissance was one of the most notable movements in African-American art. Certain freedoms and ideas that were already widespread in many parts of the world at the time had begun to spread into the artistic communities United States during the 1920s. During this period notable artists included Richmond Barthé, Aaron Douglas, Lawrence Harris, Palmer Hayden, William H. Johnson, Sargent Johnson, John T. Biggers, Earle Wilton Richardson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Archibald Motley, Augusta Savage, Hale Woodruff, and photographer James Van Der Zee. The establishment of the Harmon Foundation by art patron William E. Harmon in 1922 sponsored many artists through its Harmon Award and annual exhibitions. As it did with many such endeavors, the 1929 Great Depression largely ended funding for the arts for a time. While the Harmon Foundation still existed in this period, its financial support toward artists ended. The Harmon Foundation, however, continued supporting artists until 1967 by mounting exhibitions and offering funding for developing artists such as Jacob Lawrence.[12] Midnight Golfer by Eugene J. Martin, mixed media collage on rag paper. Kara Walker, Cut, Cut paper and adhesive on wall, Brent Sikkema NYC.The US Treasury Department's Public Works of Art Project ineffectively attempted to provide support for artists in 1933. In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Works Progress Administration (WPA). The WPA provided for all American artists and proved especially helpful to African-American artists. Artists and writers both gained work that helped them survive the Depression. Among them were Jacob Lawrence and Richard Wright. Politics, human and social conditions all became the subjects of accepted art forms. Important cities with significant black populations and important African-American art circles included Philadelphia, Boston, San Francisco and Washington, D.C. The WPA led to a new wave of important black art professors. Mixed media, abstract art, cubism, and social realism became not only acceptable, but desirable. Artists of the WPA united to form the 1935 Harlem Artists Guild, which developed community art facilities in major cities. Leading forms of art included drawing, sculpture, printmaking, painting, pottery, quilting, weaving and photography. By 1939, the costly WPA and its projects all were terminated. In 1943, James A. Porter, a professor in the Department of Art at Howard University, wrote the first major text on African-American art and artists, Modern Negro Art. Mid-20th centuryIn the 1950s and 1960s, few African-American artists were widely known or accepted. Despite this, The Highwaymen, a loose association of 26 African-American artists from Fort Pierce, Florida, created idyllic, quickly realized images of the Florida landscape and peddled some 200,000 of them from the trunks of their cars. In the 1950s and 1960s, it was impossible to find galleries interested in selling artworks by a group of unknown, self-taught African Americans,[13] so they sold their art directly to the public rather than through galleries and art agents. Rediscovered in the mid-1990s, today they are recognized as an important part of American folk history.[14][15] The current market price for an original Highwaymen painting can easily bring in thousands of dollars. In 2004 the original group of 26 Highwaymen were inducted into the Florida Artists Hall of Fame.[16] Currently 8 of the 26 are deceased, including A. Hair, H. Newton, Ellis and George Buckner, A. Moran, L. Roberts, Hezekiah Baker and most recently Johnny Daniels. The full list of 26 can be found in the Florida Artists Hall of Fame, as well as various highwaymen and Florida art websites. Jerry Harris, Dogon mother and child, constructed and carved wood with found objects, laminated clay (Bondo), and wooden dowels.After the Second World War, some artists took a global approach, working and exhibiting abroad, in Paris, and as the decade wore on, relocated gradually in other welcoming cities such as Copenhagen, Amsterdam, and Stockholm: Barbara Chase-Riboud, Edward Clark, Harvey Cropper, Beauford Delaney, Herbert Gentry,[17] Bill Hutson, Clifford Jackson,[18] Sam Middleton,[19] Larry Potter, Haywood Bill Rivers, Merton Simpson, and Walter Williams.[20][21] Some African-American artists did make it into important New York galleries by the 1950s and 1960s: Horace Pippin, Romare Bearden, Jacob Lawrence, William T. Williams, Norman Lewis, Thomas Sills,[22] and Sam Gilliam were among the few who had successfully been received in a gallery setting. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and 1970s led artists to capture and express the times and changes. Galleries and community art centers developed for the purpose of displaying African-American art, and collegiate teaching positions were created by and for African-American artists. Some African-American women were also active in the feminist art movement in the 1970s. Faith Ringgold made work that featured black female subjects and that addressed the conjunction of racism and sexism in the U.S., while the collective Where We At (WWA) held exhibitions exclusively featuring the artwork of African-American women.[23] By the 1980s and 1990s, hip-hop graffiti became predominate in urban communities. Most major cities had developed museums devoted to African-American artists. The National Endowment for the Arts provided increasing support for these artists. Important collections of African-American art include the Walter O. Evans Collection of African American Art, the Paul R. Jones collections at the University of Delaware and University of Alabama, the David C. Driskell Art collection, the Harmon and Harriet Kelley Collection of African American Art, the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, and the Mott-Warsh collection. Kara Walker, a contemporary American artist, is known for her exploration of race, gender, sexuality, violence and identity in her artworks. Walker's silhouette images work to bridge unfinished folklore in the Antebellum South and are reminiscent of the earlier work of Harriet Powers. Her nightmarish yet fantastical images incorporate a cinematic feel. In 2007, Walker was listed among Time Magazine's "100 Most Influential People in The World, Artists and Entertainers".[24] Textile artists are part of African-American art history. According to the 2010 Quilting in America industry survey, there are 1.6 million quilters in the United States.[25] Influential contemporary artists include Larry D. Alexander, Laylah Ali, Amalia Amaki, Emma Amos, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Dawoud Bey, Camille Billops, Mark Bradford, Edward Clark, Willie Cole, Robert Colescott, Louis Delsarte, David C. Driskell, Leonardo Drew, Mel Edwards, Ricardo Francis, Charles Gaines, Ellen Gallagher, Herbert Gentry, Sam Gilliam, David Hammons, Jerry Harris, Joseph Holston, Richard Hunt, Martha Jackson-Jarvis, Katie S. Mallory, M. Scott Johnson, Rashid Johnson, Joe Lewis, Glenn Ligon, James Little, Edward L. Loper, Sr., Alvin D. Loving, Kerry James Marshall, Eugene J. Martin, Richard Mayhew, Sam Middleton, Howard McCalebb, Charles McGill, Thaddeus Mosley, Sana Musasama, Senga Nengudi, Joe Overstreet, Martin Puryear, Adrian Piper, Howardena Pindell, Faith Ringgold, Gale Fulton Ross, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, John Solomon Sandridge, Raymond Saunders, John T. Scott, Joyce Scott, Gary Simmons, Lorna Simpson, Renee Stout, Kara Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, Stanley Whitney, William T. Williams, Jack Whitten, Fred Wilson, Richard Wyatt, Jr., Richard Yarde, and Purvis Young, Kehinde Wiley, Mickalene Thomas, Barkley Hendricks, Jeff Sonhouse, William Walker, Ellsworth Ausby, Che Baraka, Emmett Wigglesworth, Otto Neals, Dindga McCannon, Terry Dixon (artist), Frederick J. Brown, and many others. Artists Scipio Moorhead, Portrait of poet Phillis Wheatley, 1773, in the frontispiece to her book Poems on Various Subjects Edward Mitchell Bannister, Driving Home the Cows 1881 Harriet Powers, Bible quilt, mixed media, 1886 Henry Ossawa Tanner, Gateway, Tangier, 1912, oil on canvas, 18 7/16" × 15 5/16", St. Louis Art Museum Charles Alston, Again The Springboard Of Civilization, 1943 (WWII African American soldier) Larry D. Alexander,Greenville Courthouse, 1998A–BTerry Adkins (1953–2014), artist[1]Mequitta Ahuja (born 1976), painter, installation artistLarry D. Alexander (born 1953), painterLaylah Ali (born 1968), painterJules T. Allen (born 1947), photographerTina Allen (1949–2008), sculptorCharles Alston (1907–1977), painter[2][1]Amalia Amaki (born 1959), artistEmma Amos (born 1938), painter[2]Benny Andrews (1930–2006), painter[2][1]Edgar Arceneaux (born 1972), drawing artistRadcliffe Bailey (born 1968) collage, sculpture[3][4]Kyle Baker (born 1965), cartoonistMatt Baker (1921–1959), comic book artistJames Presley Ball (1825–1904), photographerAlvin Baltrop (1948-2004), photographerHenry Bannarn (1910–1965), painter[1]Edward Mitchell Bannister (1828–1901), painter[2][1]Ernie Barnes (1938–2009), neo-Mannerist artist[2]Richmond Barthé (1901–1989), sculptor[2][1]Jean-Michel Basquiat (1960–1988), painter[2]C. M. Battey (1873–1927), photographerRomare Bearden (1911–1988), painter[2][1]Arthello Beck (1941–2004), painterArthur P. Bedou (1882–1966), photographerDarrin Bell (born 1975), cartoonistMary A. Bell (1873–1941)Dawoud Bey (born 1953), photographer[2]John T. Biggers (1924–2001), muralist[2][1]Sanford Biggers (born 1970), interdisciplinaryGene Bilbrew (1923–1974), cartoonist and fetish artistMcArthur Binion (born 1946), painterRobert Blackburn (1920–2003), printmaker[2][1]Thomas BlackshearBetty Blayton (born 1937), painter, printmaker[1]Chakaia Booker (born 1953), sculptor[2]Edythe Boone (born 1938), muralistCharles Boyce (born 1949), cartoonistTina Williams Brewer, fiber artist[5]Michael Bramwell (born 1953), conceptual artistMark Bradford (born 1961)Elenora "Rukiya" Brown, doll creatorFrank J. Brown (born 1956), sculptorFrederick J. Brown (1945–2012), painter[2]Larry Poncho BrownManuelita Brown, sculptorRobert Brown (c. 1936–2007), cartoonistBeverly Buchanan (born 1940), painter, sculptor[1]Selma Burke (1900–1995), sculptor[1]Calvin Burnett (1921–2007), book illustrator[1]Pauline Powell Burns (1872–1912), painterJohn Bush (? - 1754), powder horn carverRobert Butler (1943–2014), painterC–DFrank Calloway (born 1915)E. Simms Campbell (1906–1971), cartoonist[1]Fred Carter (born 1938), cartoonistBernie Casey (born 1939), painter[1]Elizabeth Catlett (1915–2012), sculptor and printmaker[2][1]Nick Cave (born 1959), performance artistMichael Ray Charles (born 1967), painter[2]Barbara Chase-Riboud (born 1936), sculptor[1]Jamour Chames (born 1989), painterDon Hogan Charles (1938–2017), photographerClaude Clark (1915–2001), painter and printmaker[2]Edward Clark (born 1926), painterSonya Clark (born 1967), textile and multimedia artistWillie Cole (born 1955), painter[2]Robert Colescott (1925–2009), painter[2]Kennard Copeland (born 1966), ceramic sculptures [2]Eldzier Cortor (1916–2015), artist and printmaker[1]Ernest Crichlow (1914–2005), social realist artist[1]Allan Crite (1910–2007), painter[2] [1]Emilio Cruz (1938–2004), painter[2]Frank E. Cummings III (born 1938), woodworkerMichael Cummings (born 1945), textile artistUlysses Davis (1913–1990), sculptor[2]Bing Davis (born 1937), potter and graphic artist[1]Roy DeCarava (1919–2009), photographer[2]Beauford Delaney (1901–1979), painter[6]Joseph Delaney (1904–1991)[2]Louis Delsarte (born 1944), artist[1]J Rodney Dennis[7][8] painterJoseph Clinton Devillis (1878-1912), painterThornton Dial (1928–2016)[2]Terry Dixon (born 1969), painter and multimedia artistJeff Donaldson (born 1932), painter and criticAaron Douglas (1899–1979), painter[2][1]Emory Douglas (born 1943), Black Panther artistJohn E. Dowell Jr. (born 1941), printmaker, etcher, lithographer, and painterDavid C. Driskell (born 1931), artist and scholarRobert Scott Duncanson (1821–1872), Hudson River School[2][1]E–HWilliam Edmondson (1874–1951), folk art sculptor[2][1]Mel Edwards (born 1937), sculptor[2][1]Walter Ellison (1899–1977), painter[2]Minnie Evans (1892–1987), folk artist[2] [1]Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller (1877–1968), artist[2][1]Ellen Gallagher (born 1965)[2]Theaster Gates (born 1973), sculptor, ceramicist, and performance artist [Reginald K (Kevin) Gee (born 1964), painterHerbert Gentry (1919–2003), painterWilda Gerideau-Squires (born 1946), photographerRobert A. Gilbert (c. 1870-1942), nature photographer[9]Leah Gilliam (born 1967), media artist and filmmakerSam Gilliam (born 1933), painter[2] [1]Russell T. Gordon (born 1936), printmaker[2]Billy Graham (1935–1999), comic book artistLonnie Graham, photographer and installation artistDeborah Grant (born 1968), painterTodd Gray (born 1954), photographer, installation and performance artistLeamon Green (born 1959)Renee Green (born 1959), installation artist[2]Mario Gully, comic book artistTyree Guyton (born 1955)[2]Ed Hamilton (born 1947), sculptorPatrick Earl Hammie (born 1981), painterDavid Hammons (born 1943), artist[2]Trenton Doyle Hancock (born 1974)[2]Edwin Harleston (1882–1931), painterElise Forrest Harleston (1891–1970), photographerKira Lynn Harris (born 1963), multidisciplinary[10]John Wesley Hardrick (1891–1948), painter[2] [1]Jerry Harris (born 1945), sculptorLawrence Harris, painterMarren Hassenger (born 1947), sculptor, installation, performance[11]Palmer Hayden (1893–1973), painter[2][1]Barkley Hendricks (1945–2017), painterGeorge Herriman (1880–1944), cartoonist[2]Alvin Hollingsworth (1928–2000), illustrator, painterWilliam Howard (active 19th century), American woodworker and craftsmanBryce Hudson (born 1979), painter, sculptor[2]Julien Hudson (1811–1844), painter, sculptor[2]David Huffman (born 1963), painter[12]Richard Hunt (born 1935), sculptor[2][1]Clementine Hunter (1886/7–1988), folk artist[2][1]J–OSteffani Jemison (born 1981), performance artist, video artistWadsworth Jarrell (born 1929), painter, sculptorAnnette P. Jimerson (born 1966), painterJoshua Johnson (c.1763–c.1824), portrait painter and folk artist[2][1]Malvin Gray Johnson (1896–1934), painter[1]Rashid Johnson (born 1977), conceptual artistSargent Johnson (1888–1967), sculptor[2] [1]William H. Johnson (1902–1970)[2][1]Calvin B. Jones (1934–2010), painter, muralistJennie C. Jones (born 1968), multidisciplinaryLois Mailou Jones (1905–1998), painter[2][1]Titus Kaphar (born 1976), painter[13]Gwendolyn Knight (1914–2005), artist[1]Jacob Lawrence (1917–2000), painter[2][1]Deana Lawson (born 1979), photographer[14]Hughie Lee-Smith (1915–1999), artist[2][1]Edmonia Lewis (c. 1843–1879), artist[2][1]Norman Lewis (1909–1979), painter[2][1]Glenn Ligon (born 1960), painter[2]Llanakila, artist, painter, digital illustrator, and digital artistEdward L. Loper, Sr. (1916–2011), painterWhitfield Lovell (born 1960), artistAlvin D. Loving (1935-2005) artistGwendolyn Ann Magee (1943–2011), artist, quilter[15]Clarence Major (born 1936), painterKerry James Marshall (born 1955), painter[2]Eugene J. Martin (1938–2005), painterRichard Mayhew (born 1934), Afro-Native American, landscape painter[16]Valerie Maynard (born 1937), sculptor, printmaker, painterEaly Mays (born 1959), painterHoward McCalebb (born 1947), artistCorky McCoy, illustratorCharles McGee, (born 1924) painterCharles McGill (born 1964), artist, educatorJulie Mehretu (born 1970), painter, printmakerNicole Miller (born 1982), video artistDean Mitchell (born 1957), painterScipio Moorhead (active 1770s), painter[1]Archibald Motley (1891–1981), painter[2][1]Gus Nall (1919-1995), painterHarold Newton (1934–1994), artistLorraine O'Grady (born 1934), conceptual artistTurtel Onli (born 1952), cartoonistJackie Ormes (1911–1985), cartoonistJohn Outterbridge (born 1933), assemblage artist[2][1]Joe Overstreet (born 1933), artist[1]P–SGordon Parks (1912–2006), photographer, director[2][1]Cecelia Pedescleaux (born 1945), quilterDelilah Pierce (1904–1992), artistEarle M. Pilgrim (1923–1976), artistHowardena Pindell (born 1943), painter[2]Jerry Pinkney (born 1939), illustrator[2]Adrian Piper (born 1948), conceptual artist[2]Rose Piper (1917–2005), painter and textile designer[17]Horace Pippin (1888–1946), painter[2][1]Rae Pleasant (born 1985), illustrator[18][19]P. H. Polk (1898–1984), photographerCarl Robert Pope (born 1961), photographer[2]William Pope.L (born 1955) conceptual artistHarriet Powers (1837–1910), folk artist[2]Martin Puryear (born 1941), sculptor[2][1]Patrick H. Reason (1816–1898)Earle Wilton Richardson (1912–1935), artist[1]Faith Ringgold (born 1930), painter[2][1]Haywood Rivers (1922–2001), painterArthur Rose Sr. (1921–1995), multidisciplinaryBayeté Ross Smith (born 1976), photographerAlison Saar (born 1956), artist[2][1]Betye Saar (born 1926), artist[2][1]Charles Sallee (1923–2006), painter[2][20]Reginald Sanders (1921–2001), visual artistRaymond Saunders, painter[1]Augusta Savage (1892–1962), sculptor[2][1]John T. Scott (1940–2007), artistJoyce J. Scott (born 1948), sculptor[2]Lorenzo Scott (born 1934), painterWilliam Edouard Scott (1884–1964), painter[2][1]Charles Sebree (1914–1985), painter[2][1]Ed Sherman (born 1945), photographerThomas Sills (1914–2000), painterGary Simmons (born 1964), artistLorna Simpson (born 1960), artist[2]Merton Simpson (1928–2013), painterWilliam Simpson (1818–1872), portrait painter[1]Cauleen Smith (born 1967), filmmakerLeslie Smith III (born 1985), painterVincent D. Smith (1929–2003), painter and printmaker[21][22]Gilda Snowden (1954–2014)[2]Mitchell Squire (born 1958), American installation artist, sculptor and performance artistRaymond Steth (1916–1997)[2]Renee Stout (born 1958), artist[2]Martine Syms (born 1988), artistT–ZHenry Ossawa Tanner (1859–1937), artist[2][1]Margaret Taylor-Burroughs (1915–2010)[2][1]Alma Thomas (1891–1978), painter[2] [1]Hank Willis Thomas (born 1976), photographerMickalene Thomas (born 1971), painter and installation artistBob Thompson (1937–1966), painter[2][1]Mildred Thompson (1935–2003), abstract painter, printmaker and sculptorDox Thrash (1892–1962), printmaker, sculptor[2] [1]Bill Traylor (1856–1949)[2][1]Henry Taylor (born 1958) painterMorrie Turner (1923–2014), cartoonistJames Van Der Zee (1886–1983), photographer[2] [1]Kara Walker (born 1969), artist[2] [1]William Walker (1927–2011), Chicago muralistLaura Wheeler Waring (1887–1948), painter[2][1]E. M. Washington (born 1962), printmaker and counterfeiterJames W. Washington, Jr. (1908–2000), painter and sculptor[1]Carrie Mae Weems (born 1953), photographer[2]Pheoris WestCharles Wilbert White (1918–1979), muralist[2][1]Jack Whitten (1939-2018), painterKehinde Wiley (born 1977), painterGerald Williams (artist) (Born 1941) painterWilliam T. Williams (born 1942), painter[1]Deborah Willis (born 1948), photographerEllis Wilson (1899–1977), painter[2][1]Fred Wilson (born 1954), conceptual artistJohn Woodrow Wilson (1922–2015), sculptor[2][1]Beulah Woodard (1895–1955), sculptorHale Woodruff (1900–1980), painter[2][1]Richard Wyatt, Jr., (born 1955), painter, muralistRichard Yarde (1939–2011), watercoloristJoseph Yoakum (1890–1972), self-taught landscape artistPurvis Young (1943–2010), artistArtist groupsThe HighwaymenAfriCOBRAWhere We AtNational Conference of ArtistsSpiral (arts alliance) African-American topicsAfrican AmericaHistory (timeline)[show]Culture[show]Religion[show]Political movements[show]Civic / economic groups[show]Sports[show]Ethnic subdivisions[show]Languages[show]Diaspora[show]Lists[show]Category: African-American societyAmericaAfrica.svg African American portalvte This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. 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(June 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The Black Arts Movement, Black Aesthetics Movement or BAM is the artistic outgrowth of the Black Power movement that was prominent in the 1960s and early 1970s.[1][2][3] Time magazine describes the Black Arts Movement as the "single most controversial movement in the history of African-American literature – possibly in American literature as a whole."[4] The Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School (BARTS), founded in Harlem in 1965 by LeRoi Jones (later known as Amiri Baraka) is a key institution of the Black Arts Movement.[5] Contents1Overview1.1Influence2History2.1Authors2.2Locations3The Black Aesthetic4Major works4.1Black Art4.2"The Revolutionary Theatre"5Effects on society6Associated writers and thinkers7Related exhibitions and conferences8See also9References10External linksOverviewThe movement has been seen as one of the most important times in African-American literature. It inspired black people to establish their own publishing houses, magazines, journals and art institutions. It led to the creation of African-American Studies programs within universities.[6] The movement was triggered by the assassination of Malcolm X.[7] Among the well-known writers who were involved with the movement are Nikki Giovanni, Sonia Sanchez, Maya Angelou, Hoyt W. Fuller, and Rosa Guy.[8][9] Although not strictly part of the Movement, other notable African-American writers such as novelists Toni Morrison and Ishmael Reed share some of its artistic and thematic concerns. Although Reed is neither a movement apologist nor advocate, he said: I think what Black Arts did was inspire a whole lot of Black people to write. Moreover, there would be no multiculturalism movement without Black Arts. Latinos, Asian Americans, and others all say they began writing as a result of the example of the 1960s. Blacks gave the example that you don't have to assimilate. You could do your own thing, get into your own background, your own history, your own tradition and your own culture. I think the challenge is for cultural sovereignty and Black Arts struck a blow for that.[10] BAM influenced the world of literature with the portrayal of different ethnic voices. Before the movement, the literary canon lacked diversity, and the ability to express ideas from the point of view of racial and ethnic minorities, which was not valued by the mainstream at the time. InfluenceTheatre groups, poetry performances, music and dance were centered on this movement, and therefore African Americans gained social and historical recognition in the area of literature and arts. Due to the agency and credibility given, African Americans were also able to educate others through different types of expressions and media outlets about cultural differences. The most common form of teaching was through poetry reading. African-American performances were used for their own political advertisement, organization, and community issues. The Black Arts Movement was spread by the use of newspaper advertisements.[11] The first major arts movement publication was in 1964. "No one was more competent in [the] combination of the experimental and the vernacular than Amiri Baraka, whose volume Black Magic Poetry 1961–1967 (1969) is one of the finest products of the African-American creative energies of the 1960s."[4] HistoryThe beginnings of the Black Arts Movement may be traced to 1965, when Amiri Baraka, at that time still known as Leroi Jones, moved uptown to establish the Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School (BARTS) following the assassination of Malcolm X.[4] Rooted in the Nation of Islam, the Black Power Movement and the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Arts Movement grew out of a changing political and cultural climate in which Black artists attempted to create politically engaged work that explored the African American cultural and historical experience.[4] Black artists and intellectuals such as Baraka made it their project to reject older political, cultural, and artistic traditions.[12] Although the success of sit-ins and public demonstrations of the Black student movement in the 1960s may have "inspired black intellectuals, artists, and political activists to form politicized cultural groups,"[12] many Black Arts activists rejected the non-militant integrational ideologies of the Civil Rights Movement and instead favored those of the Black Liberation Struggle, which emphasized "self-determination through self-reliance and Black control of significant businesses, organization, agencies, and institutions."[13] According to the Academy of American Poets, "African American artists within the movement sought to create politically engaged work that explored the African American cultural and historical experience." The importance that the movement placed on Black autonomy is apparent through the creation of institutions such as the Black Arts Repertoire Theatre School (BARTS), created in the spring of 1964 by Baraka and other Black artists. The opening of BARTS in New York City often overshadow the growth of other radical Black Arts groups and institutions all over the United States. In fact, transgressional and international networks, those of various Left and nationalist (and Left nationalist) groups and their supports, existed far before the movement gained popularity.[12] Although the creation of BARTS did indeed catalyze the spread of other Black Arts institutions and the Black Arts movement across the nation, it was not solely responsible for the growth of the movement. Although the Black Arts Movement was a time filled with black success and artistic progress, the movement also faced social and racial ridicule. The leaders and artists involved called for Black Art to define itself and speak for itself from the security of its own institutions. For many of the contemporaries the idea that somehow black people could express themselves through institutions of their own creation and with ideas whose validity was confirmed by their own interests and measures was absurd.[14] While it is easy to assume that the movement began solely in the Northeast, it actually started out as "separate and distinct local initiatives across a wide geographic area," eventually coming together to form the broader national movement.[12] New York City is often referred to as the "birthplace" of the Black Arts Movement, because it was home to many revolutionary Black artists and activists. However, the geographical diversity of the movement opposes the misconception that New York (and Harlem, especially) was the primary site of the movement.[12] In its beginning states, the movement came together largely through printed media. Journals such as Liberator, The Crusader, and Freedomways created "a national community in which ideology and aesthetics were debated and a wide range of approaches to African-American artistic style and subject displayed."[12] These publications tied communities outside of large Black Arts centers to the movement and gave the general black public access to these sometimes exclusive circles. As a literary movement, Black Arts had its roots in groups such as the Umbra Workshop. Umbra (1962) was a collective of young Black writers based in Manhattan's Lower East Side; major members were writers Steve Cannon,[15] Tom Dent, Al Haynes, David Henderson, Calvin C. Hernton, Joe Johnson, Norman Pritchard, Lennox Raphael, Ishmael Reed, Lorenzo Thomas, James Thompson, Askia M. Touré (Roland Snellings; also a visual artist), Brenda Walcott, and musician-writer Archie Shepp. Touré, a major shaper of "cultural nationalism," directly influenced Jones. Along with Umbra writer Charles Patterson and Charles's brother, William Patterson, Touré joined Jones, Steve Young, and others at BARTS. Umbra, which produced Umbra Magazine, was the first post-civil rights Black literary group to make an impact as radical in the sense of establishing their own voice distinct from, and sometimes at odds with, the prevailing white literary establishment. The attempt to merge a black-oriented activist thrust with a primarily artistic orientation produced a classic split in Umbra between those who wanted to be activists and those who thought of themselves as primarily writers, though to some extent all members shared both views. Black writers have always had to face the issue of whether their work was primarily political or aesthetic. Moreover, Umbra itself had evolved out of similar circumstances: in 1960 a Black nationalist literary organization, On Guard for Freedom, had been founded on the Lower East Side by Calvin Hicks. Its members included Nannie and Walter Bowe, Harold Cruse (who was then working on The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual, 1967), Tom Dent, Rosa Guy, Joe Johnson, LeRoi Jones, and Sarah E. Wright, among others. On Guard was active in a famous protest at the United Nations of the American-sponsored Bay of Pigs Cuban invasion and was active in support of the Congolese liberation leader Patrice Lumumba. From On Guard, Dent, Johnson, and Walcott along with Hernton, Henderson, and Touré established Umbra. AuthorsAnother formation of black writers at that time was the Harlem Writers Guild, led by John O. Killens, which included Maya Angelou, Jean Carey Bond, Rosa Guy, and Sarah Wright among others. But the Harlem Writers Guild focused on prose, primarily fiction, which did not have the mass appeal of poetry performed in the dynamic vernacular of the time. Poems could be built around anthems, chants, and political slogans, and thereby used in organizing work, which was not generally the case with novels and short stories. Moreover, the poets could and did publish themselves, whereas greater resources were needed to publish fiction. That Umbra was primarily poetry- and performance-oriented established a significant and classic characteristic of the movement's aesthetics. When Umbra split up, some members, led by Askia Touré and Al Haynes, moved to Harlem in late 1964 and formed the nationalist-oriented Uptown Writers Movement, which included poets Yusef Rahman, Keorapetse "Willie" Kgositsile from South Africa, and Larry Neal. Accompanied by young "New Music" musicians, they performed poetry all over Harlem. Members of this group joined LeRoi Jones in founding BARTS. Jones's move to Harlem was short-lived. In December 1965 he returned to his home, Newark (N.J.), and left BARTS in serious disarray. BARTS failed but the Black Arts center concept was irrepressible, mainly because the Black Arts movement was so closely aligned with the then-burgeoning Black Power movement. The mid-to-late 1960s was a period of intense revolutionary ferment. Beginning in 1964, rebellions in Harlem and Rochester, New York, initiated four years of long hot summers. Watts, Detroit, Newark, Cleveland, and many other cities went up in flames, culminating in nationwide explosions of resentment and anger following Martin Luther King, Jr.'s April 1968 assassination. Nathan Hare, author of The Black Anglo-Saxons (1965), was the founder of 1960s Black Studies. Expelled from Howard University, Hare moved to San Francisco State University, where the battle to establish a Black Studies department was waged during a five-month strike during the 1968–69 school year. As with the establishment of Black Arts, which included a range of forces, there was broad activity in the Bay Area around Black Studies, including efforts led by poet and professor Sarah Webster Fabio at Merrit College. The initial thrust of Black Arts ideological development came from the Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM), a national organization with a strong presence in New York City. Both Touré and Neal were members of RAM. After RAM, the major ideological force shaping the Black Arts movement was the US (as opposed to "them") organization led by Maulana Karenga. Also ideologically important was Elijah Muhammad's Chicago-based Nation of Islam. These three formations provided both style and conceptual direction for Black Arts artists, including those who were not members of these or any other political organization. Although the Black Arts Movement is often considered a New York-based movement, two of its three major forces were located outside New York City. LocationsAs the movement matured, the two major locations of Black Arts' ideological leadership, particularly for literary work, were California's Bay Area because of the Journal of Black Poetry and The Black Scholar, and the Chicago–Detroit axis because of Negro Digest/Black World and Third World Press in Chicago, and Broadside Press and Naomi Long Madgett's Lotus Press in Detroit. The only major Black Arts literary publications to come out of New York were the short-lived (six issues between 1969 and 1972) Black Theatre magazine, published by the New Lafayette Theatre, and Black Dialogue, which had actually started in San Francisco (1964–68) and relocated to New York (1969–72). Although the journals and writing of the movement greatly characterized its success, the movement placed a great deal of importance on collective oral and performance art. Public collective performances drew a lot of attention to the movement, and it was often easier to get an immediate response from a collective poetry reading, short play, or street performance than it was from individual performances.[12] The people involved in the Black Arts Movement used the arts as a way to liberate themselves. The movement served as a catalyst for many different ideas and cultures to come alive. This was a chance for African Americans to express themselves in a way that most would not have expected. In 1967 LeRoi Jones visited Karenga in Los Angeles and became an advocate of Karenga's philosophy of Kawaida. Kawaida, which produced the "Nguzo Saba" (seven principles), Kwanzaa, and an emphasis on African names, was a multifaceted, categorized activist philosophy. Jones also met Bobby Seale and Eldridge Cleaver and worked with a number of the founding members of the Black Panthers. Additionally, Askia Touré was a visiting professor at San Francisco State and was to become a leading (and long-lasting) poet as well as, arguably, the most influential poet-professor in the Black Arts movement. Playwright Ed Bullins and poet Marvin X had established Black Arts West, and Dingane Joe Goncalves had founded the Journal of Black Poetry (1966). This grouping of Ed Bullins, Dingane Joe Goncalves, LeRoi Jones, Sonia Sanchez, Askia M. Touré, and Marvin X became a major nucleus of Black Arts leadership.[16] As the movement grew, ideological conflicts arose and eventually became too great for the movement to continue to exist as a large, coherent collective. The Black AestheticMany discussions of the Black Arts movement posit it as the "aesthetic and spiritual sister of the Black Power concept."[17] The Black Aesthetic refers to ideologies and perspectives of art that center on Black culture and life. This Black Aesthetic encouraged the idea of Black separatism, and in trying to facilitate this, hoped to further strengthen black ideals, solidarity, and creativity.[18] In his well-known essay on the Black Arts Movement, Larry Neal attests: "When we speak of a 'Black aesthetic' several things are meant. First, we assume that there is already in existence the basis for such an aesthetic. Essentially, it consists of an African-American cultural tradition. But this aesthetic is finally, by implication, broader than that tradition. It encompasses most of the usable elements of the Third World culture. The motive behind the Black aesthetic is the destruction of the white thing, the destruction of white ideas, and white ways of looking at the world."[17] Major worksBlack ArtAmiri Baraka's poem "Black Art" serves as one of his most controversial, yet poetically profound supplements to the Black Arts Movement. In this piece, Baraka merges politics with art, criticizing poems that are not useful to or adequately representative of the Black struggle. First published in 1966, a period particularly known for the Civil Rights Movement, the political aspect of this piece underscores the need for a concrete and artistic approach to the realistic nature involving racism and injustice. Serving as the recognized artistic component to and having roots in the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Arts Movement aims to grant a political voice to black artists (including poets, dramatists, writers, musicians, etc.). Playing a vital role in this movement, Baraka calls out what he considers to be unproductive and assimilatory actions shown by political leaders during the Civil Rights Movement. He describes prominent Black leaders as being "on the steps of the white house...kneeling between the sheriff's thighs negotiating coolly for his people."[19] Baraka also presents issues of euro-centric mentality, by referring to Elizabeth Taylor as a prototypical model in a society that influences perceptions of beauty, emphasizing its influence on individuals of white and black ancestry.[19] Baraka aims his message toward the Black community, with the purpose of coalescing African Americans into a unified movement, devoid of white influences. "Black Art" serves as a medium for expression meant to strengthen that solidarity and creativity, in terms of the Black Aesthetic. Baraka believes poems should "shoot…come at you, love what you are" and not succumb to mainstream desires.[19] He ties this approach into the emergence of hip-hop, which he paints as a movement that presents "live words…and live flesh and coursing blood."[19] Baraka's cathartic structure and aggressive tone are comparable to the beginnings of hip-hop music, which created controversy in the realm of mainstream acceptance, because of its "authentic, un-distilled, unmediated forms of contemporary black urban music."[20] Baraka believes that integration inherently takes away from the legitimacy of having a Black identity and Aesthetic in an anti-Black world. Through pure and unapologetic blackness, and with the absence of white influences, Baraka believes a black world can be achieved. Though hip-hop has been serving as a recognized salient musical form of the Black Aesthetic, a history of unproductive integration is seen across the spectrum of music, beginning with the emergence of a newly formed narrative in mainstream appeal in the 1950s. Much of Baraka's cynical disillusionment with unproductive integration can be drawn from the 50s, a period of rock and roll, in which "record labels actively sought to have white artists "cover" songs that were popular on the rhythm-and-blues charts"[20] originally performed by African-American artists. The problematic nature of unproductive integration is also exemplified by Run-DMC, an American hip-hop group founded in 1981, who became widely accepted after a calculated collaboration with the rock group Aerosmith on a remake of the latter's "Walk This Way" took place in 1986, evidently appealing to young white audiences.[20] Hip-hop emerged as an evolving genre of music that continuously challenged mainstream acceptance, most notably with the development of rap in the 1990s. A significant and modern example of this is Ice Cube, a well-known American rapper, songwriter, and actor, who introduced subgenre of hip-hop known as "gangsta rap," merged social consciousness and political expression with music. With the 1960s serving as a more blatantly racist period of time, Baraka notes the revolutionary nature of hip-hop, grounded in the unmodified expression through art. This method of expression in music parallels significantly with Baraka's ideals presented in "Black Art," focusing on poetry that is also productively and politically driven. "The Revolutionary Theatre""The Revolutionary Theatre" is a 1965 essay by Baraka that was an important contribution to the Black Arts Movement, discussing the need for change through literature and theater arts. He says: "We will scream and cry, murder, run through the streets in agony, if it means some soul will be moved, moved to actual life understanding of what the world is, and what it ought to be." Baraka wrote his poetry, drama, fiction and essays in a way that would shock and awaken audiences to the political concerns of black Americans, which says much about what he was doing with this essay.[21] It also did not seem coincidental to him that Malcolm X and John F. Kennedy had been assassinated within a few years, since Baraka believed that every voice of change in America had been murdered, which led to the writing that would come out of the Black Arts Movement. In his essay, Baraka says: "The Revolutionary Theatre is shaped by the world, and moves to reshape the world, using as its force the natural force and perpetual vibrations of the mind in the world. We are history and desire, what we are, and what any experience can make us." With his thought-provoking ideals and references to a euro-centric society, he imposes the notion that black Americans should stray from a white aesthetic in order to find a black identity. In his essay, he says: "The popular white man's theatre like the popular white man's novel shows tired white lives, and the problems of eating white sugar, or else it herds bigcaboosed blondes onto huge stages in rhinestones and makes believe they are dancing or singing." This, having much to do with a white aesthetic, further proves what was popular in society and even what society had as an example of what everyone should aspire to be, like the "bigcaboosed blondes" that went "onto huge stages in rhinestones". Furthermore, these blondes made believe they were "dancing and singing" which Baraka seems to be implying that white people dancing is not what dancing is supposed to be at all. These allusions bring forth the question of where black Americans fit in the public eye. Baraka says: "We are preaching virtue and feeling, and a natural sense of the self in the world. All men live in the world, and the world ought to be a place for them to live." Baraka's essay challenges the idea that there is no space in politics or in society for black Americans to make a difference through different art forms that consist of, but are not limited to, poetry, song, dance, and art. Effects on societyAccording to the Academy of American Poets, "many writers--Native Americans, Latinos/as, gays and lesbians, and younger generations of African Americans have acknowledged their debt to the Black Arts Movement."[4] The movement lasted for about a decade, through the mid-1960s and into the 1970s. This was a period of controversy and change in the world of literature. One major change came through in the portrayal of new ethnic voices in the United States. English-language literature, prior to the Black Arts Movement, was dominated by white authors.[22] African Americans became a greater presence not only in the field of literature but in all areas of the arts. Theater groups, poetry performances, music and dance were central to the movement. Through different forms of media, African Americans were able to educate others about the expression of cultural differences and viewpoints. In particular, black poetry readings allowed African Americans to use vernacular dialogues. This was shown in the Harlem Writers Guild, which included black writers such as Maya Angelou and Rosa Guy. These performances were used to express political slogans and as a tool for organization. Theater performances also were used to convey community issues and organizations. The theaters, as well as cultural centers, were based throughout America and were used for community meetings, study groups and film screenings. Newspapers were a major tool in spreading the Black Arts Movement. In 1964, Black Dialogue was published, making it the first major Arts movement publication. The Black Arts Movement, although short, is essential to the history of the United States. It spurred political activism and use of speech throughout every African-American community. It allowed African Americans the chance to express their voices in the mass media as well as become involved in communities. It can be argued that "the Black Arts movement produced some of the most exciting poetry, drama, dance, music, visual art, and fiction of the post-World War II United States" and that many important "post-Black artists" such as Toni Morrison, Ntozake Shange, Alice Walker, and August Wilson were shaped by the movement.[12] The Black Arts Movement also provided incentives for public funding of the arts and increased public support of various arts initiatives.[12] Associated writers and thinkersDon EvansMari EvansSarah Webster FabioHoyt W. FullerNikki GiovanniRosa GuyHarlem Writers GuildDavid HendersonAudre LordeDudley RandallSonia SanchezRelated exhibitions and conferencesThe Arts Council of England's (ACE) Decibel initiative produced a summary in 2003 in association with The Guardian newspaper.[23][24] An international exhibition, Back to Black — Art, Cinema and the Racial Imaginary, was held at the Whitechapel Gallery in 2005.[25] A 2006 major conference Should Black Art Still Be Beautiful?, organized by OOM Gallery and Midwest, examined the development of contemporary Black cultural practice and its future in Britain. On April 1, 2006, New Art Gallery, Walsall, UK, held a conference in honour of the late Donald Rodney. Gallery 32 and Its Circle, a 2009 art exhibition hosted at Loyola Mount University's Laband Art Gallery,[26] featured artwork displayed the eponymous gallery, which featured black artists in the Los Angeles area and played an integral role in the Black Arts movement in the area.[27] A recently redeveloped African and Asian Visual Arts Archive is located at the University of East London (UEL).[28]While African American art of the 18th and 19th centuries continued to reflect African artistic traditions, the earliest fine art made by professional African American artists was in an academic Western style. Among the leading black sculptors of the 19th century were Eugene Warbourg and Mary Edmonia Lewis, the first professional African American sculptor. The most distinguished African American artist who worked in the 19th century was Henry Ossawa Tanner, who painted African American genre subjects and reflects the realist tradition. In the early 20th century, the most important aesthetic movement in African American art was the Harlem Renaissance or the ‘New Negro’ movement of the 1920s. The Harlem district of New York became the ‘cultural capital of black America’. Practicing in New York, Stuart Davis was heavily influenced by African American culture and jazz music, though he was not an African American. Aaron Douglas consciously incorporated African imagery into his work. The most important African American photographer of that period was James Van Der Zee, who photographed people and scenes in Harlem for more than 50 years. During and immediately after World War II there arose to prominence a new school of African American artists, many of whom were the so-called ‘children of the Harlem Renaissance’. During the 1950s African American art was dominated by Abstract Expressionism and realism; their significant practitioners included Charles Alston, Romare Bearden and James Wells. In the 1960s and 1970s new classifications appeared in African American art based on continuing developments in abstract art and the rise of the figurative style known as Black Expressionism. The most prominent African American abstract painter was Sam Gilliam, based in Washington, DC. Martin Puryear emerged during the 1980s as a leading African American abstract sculptor. In the 1980s African American art was the subject of a number of pioneering exhibitions, such as Black Art—Ancestral Legacy: The African Impulse in African American Art (Dallas Museum of Art, 1989), that brought together the works of African, Caribbean and African American academic and folk artists. Today’s artists, such as Kara Walker and Fred Wilson, continue to grapple with the complex issues of African American history and identity in contemporary visual art. Country/Region of Manufacture: United States

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